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Mizoram - Geography

Taken all in all, Mizoram is made up of wooded hills, swift flowing rivers quicksilver streams and still lakes, the combination of all this is a rarity. And it is the combination of these physical features that has given Mizoram its own charm and fascination. Mizoram assumes strategic importance as it has international boundaries with Myanmar (Burma) in the east and Bangladesh in the west.

Perched on the southernmost tip of the north eastern region, Mizoram occupies and area of great strategic importance in the north-eastern corner of India. It is flanked by Bangladesh on the west and Myanmar on the east of south sharing a total of 722 km international boundary with the two countries. It also shares its borders with three states Assam, Tripura and Manipur.

Mizoram has the most variegated hilly terrain in the eastern part of India. The hills are steep and are separated by rivers which flow whether to the north or south creating deep gorges between the hill ranges. The average height of the hills is about 1000 metres. The highest peak in Mizoram is the Blue Mountain (Phawngpui) with a height of 2210 metres.

Mizoram is a land of rolling hills, valleys, rivers and lakes. As many as 21 major hill ranges or peaks of different heights run through the length and breadth of the state, with plains scattered here and there. The average height of the hills to the west of the state are about 1,000 meters (3,300 ft). These gradually rise up to 1,300 meters (4,300 ft) to the east. Some areas, however, have higher ranges which go up to a height of over 2,000 meters (6,600 ft). Phawngpui Tlang also known as the Blue Mountain, situated in the south-eastern part of the state, is the highest peak in Mizoram at 2,210 meters (7,250 ft). About 76% of the state is covered by forests, 8% is fallows land, 3% is barren and considered uncultivable area, while cultivable and sown area constitutes the rest. As per state of forest report 2015 states with maximum forest cover as percentage of their own geographical area, Mizoram being the highest 88.93% Forest.

Mizoram terrain is, according to Geological Survey of India, an immature topography, and the physiographic expression consists of several, almost North-South longitudinal valleys containing series of small and flat hummocks, mostly anticlinal, parallel to sub-parallel hill ranges and narrow adjoining synclinal valleys with series of topographic highs. The general geology of western Mizoram consists of repetitive succession of Neogene sedimentary rocks of Surma Group and Tipam Formation viz. sandstone, siltstone, mudstone and rare pockets of shell limestone. The eastern part is Barail Group. Mizoram, lies in seismic zone V, according to the India Meteorological Department; as with other northeastern states of India, this means the state has the highest risk of earthquakes relative to other parts of India.

The biggest river in Mizoram is Chhimtuipui, also known as Kaladan, Kolodyne or Chimtuipui. It originates in Chin state in Burma and passes through Saiha and Lawngtlai districts in the southern tip of Mizoram, goes back to Burma's Rakhine state. Although many more rivers and streams drain the hill ranges, the most important and useful rivers are the Tlawng, Tut, Tuirial and Tuivawl which flow through the northern territory and eventually join the Barak River in Cachar District. The rivers have a gentle drainage gradient particularly in the south.

The Palak lake is the biggest in Mizoram and covers 30 hectares (74 acres). The lake is situated in Saiha district of southern Mizoram. It is believed that the lake was created as a result of an earthquake or a flood. The local people believe that a submerged village remains intact deep under the waters. The Tam Dil lake is a natural lake situated 85 kilometres (53 mi) from Aizawl. Legend has it that a huge mustard plant once stood in this place. When the plant was cut down, jets of water sprayed from the plant and created a pool of water, thus the lake was named Tam Dil which means of 'lake of mustard plant'. Today the lake is an important tourist attraction and a holiday resort. The most significant lake in Mizo history, Rih Dil, is ironically located in Burma, a few kilometres from the Indo-Burma border. It was believed that the departed souls pass through this lake before making their way to Pialral or heaven.

Mizoram Mizoram



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Page last modified: 13-09-2021 14:49:21 ZULU