Durance Bâtiment de commandement et de ravitaillement (BCR)
The Durance class multi-product replenishment ships are designated command and replenishment ships (French: Bâtiment de commandement et de ravitaillement, BCR) in French service. The ships have a complement of approximately 10 officers, 59 non-commissioned officers and 100 sailors. The armament on-board includes Bofors, Oerlikon cannon, M2 Browning machine guns and Simbad Mistral missile launchers.
In addition to their role as a fleet tanker, they can accomooated an entire general staff and supervise naval operations - replenishment ships are normally the largest ships in a navy. Three ships of the class (the Marne, the Somme and the Var) are fitted out as flagships and can embark and an admiral and his staff. Besides the five ships built for the French Navy, a sixth was built for the Royal Australian Navy and the leadiship of the class Durance now serves with the Argentine Navy under the name Patagonia.
The types of vessels used or proposed for replenishment at sea differ with the different requirements of the countries concerned. There is, however, a common trend towards flexible capability beyond basic RAS. All-purpose supply transports provide underway replenishment of combatant ships with fuel including aviation fuel, food products, fresh water and other supplies. By the end of the Cold War the U.S. Navy had such fast "Sacramento"-Class vessels. They were able to take aboard up to 25,000 m3 of bulk liquid cargoes, 1,800 tons of weapons and ammunition, and over 600 tons of other logistic items.
The British Navy had vessels of the "Fort Grange"-Class (2) and "Resource"-Class (2) and a new series of "Fort Victoria"-Class transports was being built with a displacement of 31,600 tons and useful capacity of 12,000 m3 of bulk liquid cargoes and around 7,000 tons of solid cargoes. It was planned to transfer the lead vessel to the auxiliary fleet in 1990. All-purpose supply transports in the Italian and French navies were represented by "Stromboli"-Class (2) vessels "Durance"-Class (four in commission in 1988 and one being built) and respectively.
In the French Navy logistic support of ships at sea was organized by means of mobile logistic support vessels which are part of the naval commands in the zones. For a period of joint operations they are transferred to the subordination ofcommanders of operational ship forces, detachments and groups. As of 1988 the navy had a total of four all-purpose supply transports, six oilers, five tenders and a repair ship. Mobile logistic support forces also exist in the navies of other NATO countries. They did not represent an integral system, however, but were limited only to individual elements.
In 1972, the French Navy decided to build a number of fuel and ammunition supply ship, the Durance class, all named after rivers of France. In addition, Australia also signed with France in 1977 to Durance class was the foundation of the Australian version and build one in Australia, the Australian Navy's success to become number (HMAS Success AOR-304). With its spacious and long life characteristics, Durance class often being used as the flagship of the French Navy Expeditionary force (for example, the French Navy in the Indian Ocean Fleet headquarters long set Durance class), the ship's command center set up campaign and hold commanders and staff officers; therefore, Durance class is often referred to as commanding the French naval supply ship (Bâtiment de commandement et ravitailleur, BCR), rather than simply fleet supply ship.
Durance class power systems two Pielstick 16 PC2-5 V 400 diesel engine, output power 20 760 hp, maximum speed of 19 to 15 while sailing speed endurance up to 9,000 nautical miles. There is a helicopter deck aft with a hangar helicopter can carry out vertical refit. Durance class ship amidships with two pairs of large supply Yan, simultaneously on each side of a warship for the fuel supply line dry or high-pass; addition, there are an aft fuel delivery station for a sail in the positive behind the ship for refueling (excluding dry transfer), it is up to every ship Durance class while three vessels for refueling.
Durance class ship set including marine diesel 10000ton, aviation kerosene 500ton, drinking 130ton, food dry 170ton, ammunition 150ton, backup materials and parts 150ton, liquid materials delivery rate 1000 cubic meters per hour, while the solid material transfer station The rate is per 30 minutes passed 11ton. In addition, in order to carry out transport, rummage or expelled Greenpeace ships and other logistical, Durance class also carries a number of boats, including a LCVP personnel transport boats, a 9m long transport boats and two RHIB crusty expansion speedboat.
Durance class self-defense is not weak firepower, including the bow Bofors 40mm cannon, four M-2 12.7mm machine guns, in addition to the former two class frigates (A-629, 607) with two Oerlikon 20mm cannon with a Simbad dual-mounted short-range air defense missile launchers, after three of the class frigates (A-608, 630,631) were canceled, the number of 20mm cannon and Simbad anti-aircraft missile launchers increased to three. The ship's electronic equipment, including two DRBN-34 navigation radar (which one applies to helicopter control) and a set of US-made AN/SQL-25 towed torpedo countermeasure systems. Durance normal crew level of about 159 personnel, including eight officers, 89 sailors and 62 civil employees; while the three ships A-608, 630, 631 can carry a 70 troops.
In December 1997, the first ship Durance number (Durance A629) decommissioning, then in July 1999 sold to the Argentine Navy, was renamed ARA Patagonia (B-1).
Somali pirates attempted 09 October 2009 to storm the French navy's 18,000 tonne flagship in the Indian Ocean after mistaking it for a cargo vessel. The crew of La Somme, a 160-metre (525-foot) command vessel and fuel tanker, easily saw off the brazen night-time assault by lightly armed fighters on two lightweight skiffs and captured five pirates, a spokesman said. "The pirates, who because of the darkness took the French ship for a commercial vessel, were on board two vessels and opened fire with Kalashnikovs," Admiral Christophe Prazuck said in Paris. This was not the first time that Somali pirates have mistakenly attacked a French naval vessel. Several pirates were captured in May 2009 when they attempted to board a frigate in the area.
The Saudi Navy includes two Boraida/Buraida/Buraidah-class replenishment oilers, a heavily modified variant of the French Durance-class. In 1979, the Australian Navy ordered the multi-product replenishment oiler, HMAS Success. It was to be built at Cockatoo Island dockyard in Sydney to the same design as the French Navy ‘Durance’ class. HMAS Success (AOR 304) is a Durance class multi-product replenishment oiler serving in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Built at Cockatoo Island Dockyard in Sydney, Australia, during the 1980s, she is the only ship of the class to be constructed outside of France, and the only one to originally not serve in the Marine Nationale (French Navy).
After having insured more than 3,000 refuelling at sea, the tanker "Meuse", on 16 December 2015, experienced its last ceremony of colours after 35 years of good and loyal services. After the disarmament of the Meuse, the national Navy has only three ships able to carry out the same missions, namely the command and supply vessels (BCR) Marne, Somme and Var.
Their replacement will take place within the framework of the FLOTLOG programme (Logistic fleet) as soon as it is launched. According to the updated Military Programming Act (LPM) 2014-2019, the order should be passed by 2019. Meanwhile, an upstream study contract of 10 million euros was entrusted in 2012 to DCNS, which has already imagined a concept of a double-hulled supply ship called BRAVE (Wing replenishment Building).
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