Type 033 Romeo-class submarine - Program
Facing a difficult situation, China timely reorganized and adjusted the construction work of the R-class submarine, reorganized the relevant equipment, drawings, and materials that had arrived in the country. Finally, it decided to use the equipment provided by the Soviet Union, the construction of equipment and the trial production of related equipment, materials, and equipment of the R-class submarine were locally produced to ensure the subsequent construction of the submarine can be carried out smoothly. The Wuchang Shipyard was responsible for it. Because of the early construction experience of W-class submarines and the in-depth absorption and digestion of existing technical data, although without the help of Soviet technical experts, the two shipyards built the first R-class boats.
The first boat was completed at the Jiangnan Shipyard in December 1965. In February 1966, the first No. 033 submarine, Jiangnan Shipyard, which used domestic materials and equipment, started construction. It was launched in 1968 and entered service on June 22, 1969.
The prototype 613 submarine was completely a type of World War II submarine. The main improvements of Type 033 submarine compared with Type 613 were: adding two torpedo launch tubes, improving the performance of hydroacoustic equipment, increasing the battery's water cooling system, increasing the diving depth, and improving the state of the snorkel at the main navigational condition. The speed was changed, and the method of converting the reserve buoyancy into overloaded fuel was used to cleverly double the endurance and self-sustaining force. As a result, the power plant was not changed. The improvement in fluid power and propulsion characteristics, and the increase in displacement. The underwater speed of the boat remains unchanged.
North Korea deployed 22 633/033 submarines, 12 of which were China aid to North Korea. After the southern shipyard completed the semi-finished product, it was provided to North Korea for free and was assembled under the guidance of Chinese technicians. This assistance project is code-named "Project 13".
In 1971, in order to strengthen preparations, North Korea requested the Chinese government to help them deploy the 033 conventionally-powered submarine on the East Coast. On September 6, the Chinese and North Korean governments signed an agreement in Beijing for China to provide North Korea with a complete set of military industrial projects at no cost, in which it was determined that China would provide 12 033 submarines. In October, the Chinese study delegation headed by Liu Huaqing and its submarine assembly inspection team went to North Korea. According to the economic assistance sequence for the DPRK at that time, it was "Thirteen", so it was called "Thirteenth Project".
On March 14, 1972, the Sixth Machinebuilding Ministry issued a production task for 12 ships to assist North Korea. It was planned to deliver three, four, and five semi-finished products and complete sets of equipment within three years starting from 1973. At the same time, it is required to send technical personnel to North Korea to instruct the submarine assembly and receive training from North Korean interns. In order to ensure the overall progress of North Korean assembly, Jiangnan Shipyard decided to change the three submarines built in the factory for the PLA Navy to the first batch of aid to North Korea. The semi-finished hull construction started in May and June 1972, and it was struck to start shipping to North Korea in early 1973. At the same time, it is stipulated that factory-made parts and mechanical and electrical equipment are processed and arranged according to foreign aid requirements.
In February 1960, Jiangnan Shipyard undertook the construction task. Based on the original Submarine 03, the factory made partial alterations and supplementary adjustments to the plant and equipment, and made every preparation before production. On February 18 of the same year, the first type 033 submarine was officially started, and Wu Quanfu was the chief builder of the boat. On July 16, 1960, the Soviet Union unilaterally stopped executing contracts with the Chinese side, withdrew experts, stopped aid, and interrupted supplies. The factory employees were determined to be self-reliant and hard-working. Jiangnan Shipyard overcame various technical difficulties in the construction of submarines, such as the welding of high-strength low-alloy pressure-resistant hull steel. Chinese workers and technicians had never welded two steels, AK-25 and AK-27. Soviet experts withdrew without leaving relevant technical information. The factory welding test directors of the laboratory Tang Yingbin and Song Dayou carried out a large number of tests and finally succeeded in welding.
On August 21, 1963, the first Type 033 submarine was launched at Jiangnan Shipyard, and the director Zhang Xinyi issued a special order for this purpose. One year later, the ship left the factory for trial sailing and was commissioned by the Navy on September 21, 1965, named "New China 36". In November 1965, the leaders of the ministry and the bureau held a self-reliance conference on medium-sized submarines, and requested that the Jiangnan Plant be the main body, and all parties work together to build the Chinese "033" medium-sized torpedo submarine. With support from the Sixth Machinebuilding Department, the Navy and the Seventh Academy, the director of the Jiangnan Plant, Zhang Xinyi, organized a combination of scientific research, production, and military representatives. The front-line production command team.
The Type 033 submarine requires a total of 3821 items of supporting materials and 1051 items of equipment. These need to be designed and developed by China. In order to replace the pressure-resistant hull steel of the Soviet Union, Anshan Iron and Steel Company trial-produced for many years. The batteries, propulsion motors, diesel engines, and navigation equipment had also been trial-produced for many years, with success.
In February 1966, the batch construction of 033 submarine officially started, and the factory called the boat "self-reliance". The first batch boat was launched on July 27, 1968. It was commissioned in June 1969 and was named "New China 42". The service of this boat marked a new stage in the construction of Chinese submarines, and indicates that China had the ability to build submarines from material production, equipment manufacturing to final assembly.
In December 1973, the preparatory group for 033 boat finalization was established. Participants are Huangpu, Jiangnan, Wuchang, 701 Research Institute and various military representative offices. Shao Bingjun, Chief Engineer of Jiangnan Plant, served as the leader of the design team. On November 15, 1974, after the 033 submarine finalization meeting, Yang Hongdian, Zhao Mingqing, Xu Jiwu, Gao Jingfu, Li Linbin and other comrades led a team to conduct deep diving tests in the relevant areas of the South China Sea and the high seas. The test proved that it was fully qualified and satisfied with the user, and was approved and encouraged by the Central Military Commission. The Type 033 submarine was transferred to mass production. The construction period of Jiangnan Shipyard was shortened from 67 months for the first boat to 22 months. The plant built Type 033 submarines for 22 years.
In 1973, the construction of Type 033 submarine reached a peak of 9 ships per year. Production of the Type 033 submarine continued until 1987, when the last ship was delivered by Huangpu Shipyard. When production ceased in 1987, Jiangnan, Huangpu, Wuchang and Sichuan Piling Shipyards had built a total of 106 Type 033 submarines.
On October 10, 2009, the Chinese Navy retired the Type 033 "303" submarine decommissioned. The boat was towed to Pier 21 of Wuhan Port. The boat was transferred to the Naval University of Engineering in Wuhan as the school's teaching and training base. During the more than 20 years of service, the 303 submarine has sailed a total of 38,000 kilometers. However, it is estimated that the submarine sailed less than one week a year. China preferred to anchor these submarines at docks and train crews there. For a long time, China tried to improve the quality of its submarines and warships as a whole. In the 1980s, China stopped building the 033 submarine and switched to its improved version, the 035 submarine. The project continued until the end of the 20th century. Compared with the 033 submarine, the 035 submarine is more reliable and has a longer sailing time.
Six Chinese Type 033 submarines were exhibited after decommissioning Retired on display 033 submarines were located in Liugong Island, Weihai, Shanghai Oriental Oasis, Dalian Lushun Submarine Museum, Qingdao Navy Museum, Taizhou , Zhejiang, and Wuhan Port.
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