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Type 033 Romeo-class submarine - Design

Type 033 submarine was a diesel-electric conventional submarine based on the Soviet R-class submarine (Romeo-class) of the early 1950s . During the Sino-Soviet honeymoon in the 1950s, the Soviet Union provided design drawings and construction equipment for Chinese R-class submarines. China began to build R-class submarines by itself in 1963, numbered 033.

This second-generation conventional power submarine was developed by China itself. The boat is 76.6 meters long and 6.7 meters wide. It has a displacement of 1,300 tons on the water and 1,700 tons of water. The maximum speed on the water is 15 knots and the maximum speed is 13 knots. On the water, the displacement is 1,300 tons, the underwater total displacement is 1,700 tons, the maximum speed is 15 knots on the water, and the maximum number of underwater navigation is 13 knots. There are seven cabins inside, one for torpedo and mine mine, two for conference room, political committee, captain's office, deputy captain's room, and news room. Three cabins are command cabins and four cabins are boats.

In the tail battery compartment, the five compartments are the internal combustion engine compartment, the six compartments are the motor compartments, and the seven compartments are the torpedo and mine compartments of the tail compartment. In wartime, it has good concealment, flexible mobility, strong aggression, greater endurance and survivability. The boat is mainly used to perform tasks such as reconnaissance and patrol in the middle and the sea. Equipped with torpedoes, mines and other weapons, it can attack enemy large and medium-sized surface ships, submarines to block ports, docks and destroy enemy sea transportation lines.

Type 033 submarine had good concealment, could dive into the water in 40 seconds, and could maneuver and fight at a depth of 300 meters. It had a strong assault force and uses torpedoes as its main attack weapon. It could independently attack enemy large and medium-sized ships and submarines at sea. It could lay mines and destroy enemy targets such as ports, bases, and shore. With excellent self-sustainability and endurance, it could perform patrol for a long time (60 days and nights) away from the base and conduct reconnaissance, anti-submarine, attack, and mine-laying operations.

The 033 submarine design was a relatively successful type of submarine designed by the former Soviet Union after World War II, and at that time belonged to the world's advanced level. Type 033 submarine undoubtedly played a pivotal role in the development history of the Chinese navy submarine: it has realized a leap from assembly to imitation in China, and laid a solid foundation for the development of Chinese submarines in the future. A large number of equipped 033 submarines, as the main submarine of the PLA Navy for a certain period of time, formed an asymmetric advantage in the offshore environment, and made great contributions to the security of China's maritime borders.

Compared to the "6603" class submarine provided by the Soviet Union in 1953, the "6633" class switched to higher strength alloy steel on the hull material, so the submarine depth limit was increased; breathing tubes and electronic equipment were also improved.

The first ship of the "033" class was built completely in accordance with the original Soviet design drawings. With the construction of subsequent boats, the stock of Soviet materials was quickly used up; the China had to gradually try to establish its own material supply system. The boat is continuously improved to be suitable for use in China's waters. For example, the air conditioning, refrigeration and desalination facilities are strengthened to meet the needs of serving in the South China Sea.

The 033 submarine adopted a conventional surface line type, a bow rudder, and a twin-shaft scull propulsion. Based on the R-class submarine, a number of improvements were made to reduce navigation noise by about 20 dB. The boat-borne sonar was also changed from the former Soviet model to the 105 model developed by China, and later replaced with the H/SQ2-262A sonar produced by the 613 factory. One type 033 submarine was modified to become an experimental model carrying six Hawk-82 anti-ship missiles, namely the type 033G submarine (NATO code: Wuhan-class).

China-built 033 submarines had improvements over the Soviet design. In order to adapt to the temperature conditions in China's sea area, the capacity of air conditioning, refrigeration and fresh water production has been strengthened. After the mid-1980s, noise reduction improvements were made to the Type 033 submarine to reduce its noise level by 12 decibels from the original, improving the hidden performance of the boat and increasing the range of the sonar.

Type 033 submarine, like type 633 submarine, adopted the conventional surface ship line type, the bow of the boat is close to vertical; there are protruding sonar sensors and sonar shrouds at the top and bottom of the bow; a retractable horizontal rudder is provided behind the upper shroud of the bow; The hull of the podium is set in the middle of the hull, and the front and bottom of the hull are recessed.

Type 033 submarine uses double shell structure. The pressure-resistant shell is provided with a torpedo compartment, a front battery compartment, a command compartment, a rear battery compartment, a diesel engine compartment, a propulsion motor compartment, and a torpedo compartment. Podium enclosureThe first torpedo compartment 6 torpedo launch tube 6 first torpedo compartment torpedo launch tubeIn the middle of the boat. There are 11 ballast water tanks in the whole boat, which had good submergence and seaworthiness.

The Type 033 submarine is divided into 7 compartments, namely the torpedo compartment, the front battery compartment, the command compartment, the rear battery compartment, the diesel engine compartment, the propulsion motor compartment and the tail torpedo compartment.

  1. I cabin - the first torpedo capsule. There are 6 torpedo tubes, more than W more level 2 tools. There are spare torpedo racks and torpedo loading hatches. In addition, torpedo weight tanks, annular gap tanks, bubble-free launch tanks, torpedo weight tanks and trim balance tanks are all in this cabin. There are also fresh water tanks, fuel tanks and crew bunks. The first torpedo compartment has six 533 mm launch tubes and six spare torpedoes, the first horizontal rudder and anchor device, and an emergency blow-off system.
  2. II cabin front battery compartment, a group of 112 46-SU-type batteries are arranged below the deck . On the upper level are the captain's room, the officer's room, the communication room, and the automatic battery switch. The first battery compartment has a battery and an officer's cabin.
  3. III cabin command cabin. On the upper side of the deck, there are a radar room, a sonar room, and a chart room ; on the starboard side, there are a steering part, a submersible part, a trim system control part, a high-pressure and medium-pressure air station, a director, and a main compass. Below the deck are piping system control stations and bilge main drain pumps, hydraulic pump stations, log meters, as well as grain tanks, refrigerators, fresh water tanks, sewage tanks, code rooms, and toilets. Loop antennas, " BAH-C " radio antennas, "surge " radar antennas, "storm " radar antennas, and attack periscopes, as well as lifting devices for air periscopes, are also at the command position of the III cabin. The shape of the command room enclosure is special. There is a protruding shroud on the middle of the shell of the command room. Inside is the air intake shaft of the snorkel device. The two periscopes are wrapped in this streamlined shroud before and after it. It's all behind this shroud. The forward end of the command room enclosure is the bridge when navigating on the water and protrudes forward, while the lower part is recessed towards the stern. This reduces water splashes towards the bridge when sailing on water. Above the tail of the command room enclosure, there is a diesel exhaust nozzle for sailing in the form of a duck tail. These features are the "original " Soviet R -class submarines. The command module integrates the main systems of radar, sonar, navigation, steering, submersible, equalization, firing command, and high and medium pressure gas, water drainage, hydraulic, air conditioning, refrigeration, and battery water cooling. There are also lifting devices for periscopes, radar antennas, radio antennas and snorkels.
  4. IV cabin rear battery compartment. Below the deck is another battery pack. On the upper deck are living quarters: the officer's room, the civil servant and the sailor's cabin. Kitchen, shower room. There are also automatic battery switches. The clean oil tank is arranged below the battery compartment. Rear battery compartment with a battery and crewCommand module interior command module interiorCabin.
  5. V cabin Diesel engine room. There are two 37D diesel engines and their auxiliary engines and various pipelines. There are also shafting, tire clutches, diesel cranking gear and diesel engine control parts. In addition, there are electric air compressors, whole boat and battery compartment ventilator, circulating oil tank and net oil tank, sewage oil tank and sewage tank in this cabin. Diesel engine room, with 2 diesel engines, all-ship ventilator, air-conditioning and refrigeration system, etc.
  6. VI Cabin the main motor compartment. There are two PG-101 main motors and main control boards, two warp motors and control boards, shafting, clutches, thrust bearings, electric air compressors, converter units and their control boards, automatic pressure regulators and 2 Switchboard. There are also two sergeant master and sailor cabins with three bunks. The propulsion motor compartment has two main propulsion motors and two air navigation motors and their control equipment.
  7. VII Cabin - Ballast tanktail torpedo tank. There are 2 torpedo tubes. There are access hatches, 4 hoists and bilge pumps. In addition, there are tail trim tanks, annular clearance tanks, bubble-free launch tanks and fresh water tanks in the tail tank. The tail torpedo compartment has two 533 mm torpedo tubes, rudder gears, etc.

The main observation equipment of Type 033 submarine includes radar and radar reconnaissance aircraft, integrated sonar, communication sonar, reconnaissance sonar and periscope, gyrocompass, hydrometer, track self-drawing instrument, and shortwave, longwave, ultrashortwave and other radio Communication equipment and its antenna.

Type 033 submarine power system uses 2 6E390C medium-speed diesel engines, 4033 Submarine auxiliary power engine room, two electric motors for low speed underwate power, two electric motors for low speed propulsion, and twin-shaft double-four-blade propellers. The boat is equipped with an emergency power unit, including a diesel engine block, a battery pack, and an emergency propulsion motor.

Type 033 submarine derivative

Type 6633 : The first two 033 boats made by China are almost completely the same as the Romeo class, using Soviet mold.

Type 033 : stereotyped boat, mass production around 1967 strengthened several air devices and coolers.

ES5A type : Upgraded propulsion system and self-made sonar for export version of arms, exported to Egypt .

033 Modification : The second upgraded version of ES5A can launch guided torpedoes, several computerized and fire control upgrades.

From the late 1960s to the mid 1970s, some of the more recently built boats were modernized and retrofitted. The retrofit projects include: 801A noise sonar, SQG-2 noise ranging sonar, 063 communication sonar station and other sonar equipment and underwater acoustic countermeasure equipment modification, propeller noise reduction, underwater acoustic countermeasure equipment modification, composite communication antenna, magnetic antenna and ultra-long wave water Modification of the buoyancy towing antenna and other antenna series, QZHA-10 (779) command periscope and QDYA-10 (778) multipurpose periscope; air conditioning, refrigeration, and freshwater capacity enhancement, water hole modification and low noise propeller, propeller duct damping material, low noise hydraulic steering gear manipulator, diesel air pipe Valves and other vibration and noise reduction modifications.

After the mid-1980s, propeller noise reduction improvements were made to this type of boat, reducing its noise level by more than an order of magnitude, improving the concealment of the submarine and increasing the range of the sonar system. Later, he also experimentally tested the French DUUX-5 passive ranging sonar, equipped with the Italian A-184 line guided torpedo, and so on. The improved Type 033 submarine has a comprehensive combat capability comparable to that of the German Type 206 submarine.

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Page last modified: 25-12-2019 18:42:38 ZULU