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Military


Chad - Politics

François Tombalbaye11 Aug
1960
13 Apr
1975
PPT = Parti Progressiste Tchad
Félix Malloum N'Gakoutou Bey-Ndi15 Apr
1975
23 Mar
1979
Military
Goukouni Oueddei23 Mar
1979
29 Apr
1979
FAP = Forces Armées Populaires
Lol Mahamat Choua 29 Apr
1979
03 Sep
1979
MPLT = Mouvement des Personnes
pour la Libération du Chad
Goukouni Oueddei03 Sep
1979
07 Jun
1982
FAP = Forces Armées Populaires
Hissène Habré07 Jun
1982
01 Dec
1990
FAN = Forces Armées du Nord
Idriss Déby Itno02 Dec
1990
20 Apr
2020
MPS = Mouvement Patriotique du Salut
Mahamat Idriss Déby Itno20 Apr
2020
...... MPS = Mouvement Patriotique du Salut
The majority of the 14 million Chadians did not benefit from the oil windfall of the early 2000s, but suffered the full brunt of the fall in oil prices in 2014. The country, led by Idriss Déby Itno since 1990, was indeed among the lowest in the class in human development. In its 2017 ranking on the subject, the UNDP ranked it 52nd out of 54, and 186th in the world.

President HABRE's government forces, confronted since 10 November 1990, in the east of the country, on the Sudanese border, with an offensive by supporters of Idriss DEBY of the MPS (Patriotic Salvation Movement), suffered serious setbacks. Hissen HABRE, who had been thought to have disappeared for a while, finally reappeared at the head of his troops placed directly under his orders. At the time of the victory of the MPS, Deby assured his commitment to work for the advent of a real, pluralist democracy, guaranteeing all the individual and collective freedoms.

President Déby was re-elected for a 5th term in April 2016. Unlike the 2006 and 2011 elections, the opposition participated in the electoral competition in 2016, presenting 12 candidates against the outgoing president. The campaign was notably marked by a strong mobilization of collectives from civil society. The voting process took place April 10 in the quiet and were also characterized by good participation of Chadian voters (66%). The results, proclaimed on May 3 by the Constitutional Council, gave victory to the outgoing president with a score of 59.92%, ahead of Mr. Saleh Kebzabo (UNDR) at 12.77%.

A former commander-in-chief of the army, the autocratic President Idriss Deby had been in power since 1990. Foreign powers respected him. Chad was seen as a relatively stable country in an unruly region. Chad possesses well-trained security forces, which Deby kept on a tight rein. His troops are deployed in Nigeria, Niger and Cameroon, where they are battling the Boko Haram Islamist insurgency.

President Idriss Deby Itno is a fierce desert fighter, but a divisive political leader. He has little stomach for managing coalitions, nurturing consensus, or engaging in the give and take of normal democratic politics. Instead, he rules by intimidating, buying off, and, when necessary, exiling or even killing off his opponents. He surrounds himself with sycophants and regards dissenters with suspicion, if not outright hostility. He puts up with criticism in the press and the National Assembly, but only because he knows it does not threaten his power. Even though many in his extended family have turned on him, he has not succeeded in reaching out beyond his immediate clan to establish a broader base of support.

Although the constitution provides for freedom of peaceful assembly, the government did not respect this right. The government regularly interfered with opposition protests and civil society gatherings, particularly before and after the April 2016 election. The constitution provides for freedom of opinion, expression, and press, but the government severely restricted these rights, according to Freedom House. Authorities used threats and legal prosecutions to curb critical reporting. Although the constitution provides for the right to privacy and inviolability of the home, the government did not always respect these rights. Authorities entered homes without judicial authorization and seized private property without due process. Security forces routinely stopped citizens to extort money or confiscate goods.

In April 2016 President Idriss Deby Itno, leader of the Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS), was elected to a fifth term with 59.92 percent of the vote. While the election was orderly and had a high voter turnout, it was neither free nor fair, and there were numerous irregularities. Runner-up Saleh Kebzabo, who received 12.8 percent of the vote, refused to accept the outcome of the election, stating it was an “electoral stickup.” In the 2011 legislative elections, the ruling MPS won 118 of the National Assembly’s 188 seats. International observers deemed that election legitimate and credible. Since 2011, legislative elections had been repeatedly postponed for various reasons.

Idriss Déby Itno announced the birth of the Fourth Republic. Resolutions, during a forum which ended on 27 March 2018, were taken: abolition of the primature, no creation of a post of vice-president, abolition of institutions such as the medature, the Economic Council and social. The meeting was boycotted by the opposition and part of civil society. A committee of lawyers and constitutional experts must work on these resolutions, which may or may not be adopted. Then will come the time for the adoption by referendum of a new Constitution.

The post of Prime Minister is abolished, a vice-presidency is not created. According to some they are resolutions, for others recommendations. A committee of jurists is going to floor and say if the decisions of the forum are applicable. In particular, there is the thorny problem of the relationship between the executive and the National Assembly. Without a Prime Minister, who can appear before elected officials?

The presidential party (Patriotic Salvation Movement - MPS) had an absolute majority in the National Assembly (114 seats out of 188) since the last poll in February 2011. The adoption of a constitutional law by the Chadian National Assembly on February 27, 2015 extended "until the establishment of the new meeting" the mandate thereof. The next legislative elections, which were initially announced for 2018, are now scheduled for early 2020.





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Page last modified: 26-04-2021 12:38:06 ZULU