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Chad - Political Parties

Chad’s political arena is crowded with multiple political parties. President Déby Itno’s Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS) is aligned with approximately 60 parties. The Coordination des Partis Politiques pour la Défense de la Constitution (CPDC), an umbrella group for opposition parties, has a membership of approximately 35 parties, and approximately 10 independent parties are also registered and recognized.

There were approximately 78 registered political parties in the country. Parties allied with the government generally received favorable treatment. Opposition political leaders accused the government of co-opting their most popular local politicians to run as MPS members in local elections and alleged intimidation by the military of party members who refused to cooperate. Northerners, particularly members of the Zaghawa ethnic group, including the Bideyat subclan to which the president belongs, continued to dominate the public sector and were overrepresented in key institutions of state power, including the military officer corps, elite military units, and the presidential staff.

When the United Front for Change (Front Uni pour le changement, FUC) was founded at the end of December 2005, it was led by Mahamat Nour Abdelkerim. The FUC as a coalition that brought together eight rebel factions: The eight groups included: RDL [Rassemblement pour la Démocratie et la Liberté (Rally for Democracy and Freedom)], SCUD [Socle pour le Changement, l'Unité nationale et la Démocratie (Platform for Change, Unity and Democracy)], CNT [Concorde Nationale du Tchad (Chadian National Concord Movement)], FNTR (Front Nationale pour le Tchad Rénové, National Front for the Renewal of Chad), CNR (Conseil National pour le Redressement, National Council for Recovery), FRRRT (Force pour le Ratissage, le Regroupement et le Redressement du Tchad, Force for the Cleansing, Reunification and Resurgence of Chad), Groupe du 8 Décembre, and FIDL. FUC was originally known as the Front Uni pour le Changement Démocratique au Tchad, FUCD (United Front for Democratic Change in Chad).

The personality of Mahamat Nour, the leader chosen by the Sudanese at that time, the power of regional bodies and the ambitions of certain lieutenants, led to the FUC’s breakdown” by December 2007. Following the attempted coup of April 2006, Ahmat Yacoub, advisor, founder and former secretary general of the FNTR indicated that there was “divisiveness between Nour and several elements.” Mahamat Béchir, deputy foreign representative, resigned from the FUC on 30 July 2006. Albissaty Saleh Allazam, coalition spokesperson, called for the leader’s resignation. In addition, denying Ahmat Yacoub’s allegations pointing to the withdrawal of the CNT from the FUC, Allazam stated that “the only group that withdrew from the coalition is Mahamat Nour’s RDL”.

Dissident members of the FUC formed a new group under the same name, led by Abderman Koulamallah. However, according to a March 2007 report by Roy May and Simon Massey, published by Writenet, a network of researchers and writers on human rights, forced migration, and ethnic and political conflict, the FUC witnessed the formation of a second and much more [translation] “political” group of the same name, led by Abdelwahid Aboud Makay (or Makaye). May and Massey add that other FUC members have returned to the Rally of Democratic Forces (Rassemblement des Forces Démocratiques, RAFD) (Mar. 2007).

HRW states that the dissident faction of the FUC reportedly led by Abdelwahid Aboud Makaye rejoined the Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (Union des Forces pour la Démocratie et le Développement, UFDD) in 2006 after signing the 24 December 2006 peace agreement with the Chadian government, which officially disbanded the FUC.

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