Chad - Corruption
Corruption continued to be a serious problem. According to Transparency International's corruption perceptions index for the year, corruption was characterized as "rampant." Corruption in Chad remains a significant deterrent to U.S. persons and businesses interested in investing in Chad. Corruption is most pervasive in: government procurement, award of licenses or concessions, dispute settlement, regulation enforcement, customs, and taxation. Chad, which has a population of 10 million, is among the poorest and most corrupt countries in the world, placing 165th of 174 countries in Transparency International’s 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index.
In July 2006 two cabinet ministers were removed from their positions for misappropriation of government funds after the Ministry of Morality conducted an investigation. It was unclear whether the ministers would go to trial since ministers and members of government are immune from criminal trial unless the National Assembly suspends their immunity, which has never previously occurred. In September 2006, the College for the Monitoring and Control of Oil Resources (CCRSP) issued its second report on poverty reduction projects funded with oil revenues. It identified many deficiencies in the execution of projects, including contract delays, nondelivery of goods, poor quality of projects, lack of communication between priority sector ministries and local authorities, and corrupt practices such as double-charging for services. The government had not taken action on deficiencies identified in the CCRSP's first report in 2005.
The Ministry of Good Governance previously served as the institution that monitored the transparency and accountability of the government’s operations, conducting yearly administrative and financial audits of the different government departments. In July 2015, the GOC replaced the Ministry with an independent Court of Auditors (Cours des Comptes) equivalent to a supreme audit institution (SAI). The Court of Auditors should further increase independent oversight of the government decisions, although its members are nominated by Presidential decree. In September 2015, the GOC created a General Inspectorate for State Control within the Presidency to oversee government accountability. In addition to the two bodies, the National Assembly’s Finance committee carries out verifications of the GOC’s annual financial statement. No audits have been made publicly available during the reporting period.
A February 2000 anti-corruption law stipulates penalties for corrupt practices. As in other developing countries, low salaries for most civil servants, judicial employees, and law enforcement officials, coupled with a weak state system and culture of rent seeking, have contributed to corruption. Charges against those indicted are often dropped for “lack of evidence.” In 2014, for example, the Chadian government launched investigations of several high-ranking officials, including cabinet ministers. All charges were eventually dropped and the ministers were reappointed to other positions within the GOC. Still, public acceptance of corruption has dropped significantly in the past several years. President Déby Itno, in public addresses to the nation, pledges to continue the campaign to eliminate corruption from Chadian public life, has often criticized the practice of taking liberties with public goods, and promises prosecution of those who accept kickbacks or demand bribes. In October 2015, President Déby Itno removed the Director of Customs – his younger brother – allegedly for corruption.
A prominent local NGO, the Alternative Group for Petroleum Research and Monitoring – Chad (GRAMP-TC, Groupe Alternative de Recherche et de Monitoring de Pétrole – Tchad) tries to track government expenditures of oil revenue, for example. There are no indications that anti-corruption laws are enforced more or less stringently against foreign investors than against Chadian citizens.
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