CG-47 Ticonderoga-class Design
The Ticonderoga class brings a multi-warfare capability to the Fleet which significantly strengthens Battle Group operation effectiveness, defense, and survivability. In addition to its own anti-air warfare (AAW), anti-submarine warfare (ASW), and anti-surface warfare (ASUW) self-defense capability, the ships can effectively provide local area protection to the battle group, SAG, or other military shipping against air, surface, and subsurface threats. These multi-mission ships are capable of sustained combat operations in any combination of Anti-Air, Anti-Submarine, Anti-Surface, and Strike warfare environments. These ships can detect, classify and track hundreds of potential targets simultaneously in the air, on the surface, and under the sea. They can destroy targets using a variety of weapons: ship and helicopter launched torpedoes, deck guns, surface-to-air and surface-to-surface missiles, rapid-fire close-in weapons, and electronic jammers and decoys.
The design is a greatly revised version of the SPRUANCE class destroyer, using the same highly successful hull and propulsion but incorporating the Aegis Mk 7 weapon system (SPY-1 series phased-array radar, four missile illuminator radars, Mk 26 or Mk 41 missile-launch system, etc.). Bow bulwarks were required to keep decks dry, as draft was increased about three feet over that of the original Spruance design. No fin stabilization is fitted. CG 49 and later have lighter tripod after masts. Kevlar armor is incorporated over vital spaces. These ships have sufficient stability margin to operate at up to 10,200 tons full load. CG 47 and 48 carry a small amount of lead ballast, but later units do not. Carry two 1,632 lb anchors, with 180 fathoms of chain to the bow anchor and 135 fathoms to the starboard anchor.
The Ticonderoga class was initially designated as a Guided Missile Destroyer (DDG), but was redesignated as a Guided Missile Cruiser (CG) on 01 January 1980. Units are named for battles and campaigns (except for CG 51, named for a former Secretary of Defense and of the Navy). The ships are capable of carrying their formidable array of weapons and electronic equipment at high speeds over long ranges. They measure 567 feet from bow to stern, have a beam of 55 feet and displace 9,600 tons. Powered by four gas turbine engines, which develop more than 80,000 horsepower, AEGIS cruisers are capable of reaching speeds in excess of 30 knots. Two controllable, reversible pitch propellers and twin rudders add flexibility and maneuverability.
The ship's weaponry and state of the art electronics truly distinguish the class as a multi-mission design able to engage air, surface, and subsurface threats. Technological advances in the Standard Missile coupled with the AEGIS combat system in Ticonderoga class cruisers have increased the AAW capability of surface combatants. A land attack capability, coupled to their AEGIS anti-air missile systems, AN/SQQ-89 Undersea Warfare system and sophisticated C4ISR suite, make these ships the most powerful surface combatants in service with any navy.
The Ticonderoga class were the first surface combatant ships equipped with the AEGIS Weapons System, the most sophisticated air defense system in the world. Aegis also incorporates an antisubmarine warfare suite is equally unmatched. The AEGIS Weapons System was designed to defeat attacking missiles and provide quick reaction, high firepower, and jamming resistance to deal with the Anti-Air Warfare threat expected to be faced by the Carrier Battle Group during the Cold War. The AEGIS Weapons System is designed to defeat attacking missiles and provide quick reaction, high firepower, and jamming resistance to deal with the Anti-Air Warfare threat expected to be faced by the Battle Group. The Aegis system is an extensive integration of electronic detection, command and decision programs, and engagement systems. The AEGIS combat system can also direct the operation of fighter aircraft and helicopters in protection of the Battle Group.
The AEGIS Display System, a series of four large-screen displays, enables the Commanding Officer, Tactical Action Officer, and embarked commander to remain constantly abreast of the battle situation. These large screen displays aid the Commanding Officer and Tactical Action Officer in evaluating assets and hostile forces anywhere in the world and clearly displays the battle picture. The ship's' command and control ability is augmented by a computer controlled radio center.
The anti-air warfare task in an AEGIS cruiser is highly challenging. The crew must detect and track airborne vehicles (e.g., airplanes, helicopters, missiles) moving at high speeds, as well as surface and subsurface elements that could suddenly launch missiles. The crew must track these vehicles, identify their type, nationality and intent, and respond in a way that ensures defense without provoking hostile reactions. The systems operators can use different sensors to detect and track the vehicles, and can draw on a variety of weapons.
The anti-air warfare team consists of approximately ten individuals including the captain and his key officer, the Tactical Action Officer. All of the team members are positioned at workstations that display graphical information about the tactical picture. The symbology depicts the current evaluation of each vehicle, its position relative to the cruiser, and its current course and speed indicated by a vector associated with the vehicle symbol. Operators interact with the system using a trackball and cursor, as well as a keyboard.
The AN/SPY-1, the primary sensor of the AEGIS system, automatically detects and tracks air contacts to beyond 200 miles. The AN/SPY-1 radar covers 360 degrees from wavetop to stratosphere and detects targets in all environments from bad weather to electronic countermeasures. This computer controlled phased array radar eliminates the need for separate search and tracking radars by simultaneously performing both functions. The four fixed arrays of the SPY-1 radar form small beams of electromagnetic energy, and steer them to provide nearly instantaneous full radar coverage. It is capable of tracking hundreds of contacts.
The ship's weapons include Standard Surface-to-Air Missiles (SM-1 and SM-2), Harpoon Surface-to-Surface Cruise Missiles, Phalanx Rapid-Fire Close-In Weapons Systems for self-defense against aircraft and missiles, the LAMPS Mark III "Seahawk" helicopter with her installed detection and engagement systems, 5" automated gun system, as well as torpedoes, both ship and helicopter launched. The ship's weapons systems are supplemented by electronic warfare countermeasures, decoys, and passive detection systems.
In the first five ships of the class, two rapid-fire Mark 26 Mod 5 Guided Missile Launching Systems fire Standard Missiles at surface and air targets. Twenty-two TICONDEROGA-class AEGIS cruisers, starting with CG-52, have vertical launch systems (VLS), which employs both the long range surface-to-surface Tomahawk Cruise Missile and the Standard Surface-to-Air Missile. The Tomahawk ASM/LAM gives them additional long range strike mission capability. The Vertical Launching System permits them to carry and launch significant numbers of TOMAHAWK precision strike cruise missiles against targets of military importance deep in enemy territory. The addition of Tomahawk ASM/LAM in the CG-47 class has vastly complicated unit target planning for any potential enemy and returned an offensive strike role to the surface forces that seemed to have been lost to air power at Pearl Harbor.
The ship's surface and subsurface weapons are extremely capable. Tomahawk and Harpoon cruise missiles provide stand-off strike capability while Standard Missiles handle short range engagements. The homing, anti-ship Harpoon missiles are fire from deck launchers to destroy surface attackers. Two five-inch gun mounts are used against threatening ships and boats, low-flying aircraft, or to bombard shore targets. To complete its anti-air defenses the Phalanx weapons system delivers a lethal punch to closer inbound missiles. Two rapid-fire Phalanx 20mm guns, known as CIWS (Close-in Weapon System), destroy targets that break through the outer area defense systems.
In addition, the ships carry a strong Anti-Submarine Warfare Suite. This unmatched antisubmarine warfare suite includes the AN/SQS-53C hull mounted sonar, acoustic towed array, and two SH-60B Seahawk helicopters. In the anti-submarine warfare (ASW) area, later ships of the class are shielded from underwater attack by the AN/SQQ-89(V)3 surface antisubmarine warfare system. This completely integrated system provides detection, location, and classification of submarine contacts at stand-off ranges. It consists primarily of a powerful active/passive bow mounted sonar, a passive tactical towed array, and a LAMPS MK III helicopter. These cruisers have the most advanced underwater surveillance system available today. The Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) equipment consists of a hull-mounted SONAR, an Acoustic Array SONAR which is towed like a tail behind the ship, and a helicopter that can locate ships or submarines over 100 miles away. Surface Vessel Torpedo Tubes launch the Mk 46 torpedoes to destroy enemy submarines. A full load of sonobuoys assists in detecting and tracking submarines. Embarked SH-60B helicopters, which produce underwater detection and prosecution capabilities at extended ranges, engage submarines using sonobuoys and Mk 46 torpedoes.
The Navy's latest Electronic Warfare Suite is also aboard. Hard kill weapons are complimented by electronic warfare countermeasures, decoys, and passive detection systems, along with excellent aircraft control capabilities. The SLQ-32 (V) 3 Electronic Warfare System analyzes hostile emissions and provides active and passive countermeasures against attackers, jamming the enemy's electronics.
The Mk 86 Mod 9 fire-control system for the 5" guns provides no AW capability in this class, as no SPG-60 radar is carried. In the earliest ships, the R.C.A. built Aegis Mk 7 Mod 2 system, which uses 1 UYK-20 and 12 UYK-7 computers, employs the four fixed faces of the SPY-1A radar to detect and track up to several hundred targets simultaneously. The four radar illuminators are slaved to the system and can, through time-share switching, serve more than a dozen missiles in the air at once. The Mk 99 missile fire-control system uses four Mk 80 illuminator-directors with SPG-62 radars. The UPX-29 IFF circular antenna array is carried on the mainmast. The Harpoon missiles, which are launched by the SWG-1 launch control system, are in an exposed position at the extreme stern. All have Link 4A, 11, and 14 capability.
Four LM-2500 gas turbine engines manufactured by General Electric [almost identical to those used in DC-10 aircraft], provide the ship with tremendous power. With its 80,000 shaft horsepower, this ship is able to go through the water in excess of 30 knots. An AEGIS Cruiser can accelerate to approximately 33 knots in 60 seconds. Two special propellers, called Controllable Reversible Pitch Propellers (CRP), harness the power of the engines and help the ship optimize its speed and maneuverability through the water. By varying the screws' pitch and RPM, the ship can stop from full speed ahead in only 2 ship lengths. Electricity is supplied by three Allison Gas Turbine Generators. Each provides 2500 kW of power, capable of sustaining all the ship's needs [and producing enough energy to power 4000 average homes]. During normal steaming, however, two GTGs are usually operational because of the large demand by the Aegis Weapons System. The 300 miles of electrical cable in the ship could stretch from Los Angeles to San Francisco.
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