Peter Ivanovich Ivashutin
Peter Ivanovich Ivashutin can rightly be called a legendary man. Indeed, it is only the fact that 24 years out of the 60 years devoted to the security of the country, he headed the most secret special service of the Soviet Union - the General Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff, speaks for itself. On March 18, 1963, the 53-year-old first deputy chairman of the KGB, the general-colonel Ivashutin, was appointed chief of the GRU. On the same day, the Chief of the General Staff, Marshal Sergei Biryuzov, introduced Peter Ivanovich to the leadership of the Main Directorate.
Being drafted for active military service in the Red Army, P.I. Ivashutin was sent to study at the 7th Stalingrad Military Aviation School. In early January 1939, the third-year student, Captain Ivashutin, received an unexpected proposal: to proceed for further service to the military counterintelligence of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the USSR. With the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War, the situation on the territory of the Transcaucasian Military District had significantly worsened. In some areas, bandit groups appeared.
Colonel P.I. Ivashutin was appointed head of the counterintelligence department "SMERSH" of the South-Western Front. Ivashutin recalled: "During the war years, the SMERSH management of the fronts from a purely counterintelligence body turned into a powerful intelligence and counterintelligence service that was engaged not only in the search for enemy agents, but also in intelligence reconnaissance in the front lines of the enemy."
Ivashutin led military intelligence in those years when the military-strategic parity between the United States and the USSR began, which led to the birth of the second superpower of the world. And Peter Ivanovich's personal contribution to the achievement of this parity is unquestionable.
March 17, 1954. P.I.Ivashutin was appointed head of the 5th KGB Directorate, which was tasked with counterintelligence security of strategic and especially important industrial facilities (defense, industrial, weapons and rocket-space complexes), but on June 7 he was appointed deputy chairman of the KGB. Ivashutin became responsible for ensuring the safety of construction and operation of the world's first Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan (a decision on which was adopted by the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR on February 12, 1955). On January 24, 1956, Lieutenant-General P.I. Ivashutin was appointed first deputy chairman of the KGB under the Council of Ministers of the USSR, which implied a significant expansion of his powers and responsibilities.
Since June 1962, Ivashutin supervised all counterintelligence measures for carrying out the "strategic event" Anadyr "(deployment of the Group of Soviet Forces in Cuba). In 1962, Pyotr Ivanovich Ivashutin, Hero of the Soviet Union, the army general, the former chief of the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff, traveled to Novocherkassk as part of the governmental commission headed by Anastas Mikoyan - to extinguish the unrest of the workers of the electric locomotive plant. They quit shooting. Ivashutin proposed other, more humane measures of influence on the instigators and organizers of the riots, but at the top they preferred hard violence.
It was with him that the rapid development of means of space exploration began, where the USSR had certain advantages over the United States: the first domestic reconnaissance vehicle included in the history of space exploration under the name "Cosmos-4" (of the type "Zenith") was launched on orbit on April 26, 1962. In the same year, four more reconnaissance satellites were launched, and in 1963 - 6. The frequency of launches of reconnaissance vehicles increased from 9 in 1964 to 30-35 launches in the mid-1970s. And this also required the creation of a network of stations receiving and processing the information received, its transmission with minimal time loss. Ivashutin knew the technical means of reconnaissance and their capabilities well, and therefore paid unflagging attention to their development and improvement.
It was under Ivashutin that the GRU acquired the power, diversity and secretiveness that it possesses today. When he was in November 1963 in Cuba, in the town of Lourdes , a special group of radio electronic reconnaissance "Reed" was created, in 1969 the first reconnaissance ship "Crimea" was launched into battle , and then the "Caucasus", "Primorye" and "Transbaikalia ". Under Ivashutin, an automated military intelligence system was created under the conventional name "Dozor" , and in one of the regions of North Korea there was a complex of radio technical reconnaissance "Ramona" . The years of Pyotr Ivanovich's administration in the GRU are called "the era of Ivashutin".
The tandems of the first leaders of the party and state and the first leaders of the country's special services are well known: Lenin-Dzerzhinsky, Stalin-Yagoda, Stalin-Yezhov, Stalin-Beria, Khrushchev-Serov, Brezhnev-Andropov, Andropov-Chebrikov, Gorbachev-Kryuchkov. The replacement of the first leader of the party, and consequently of the state, automatically led to the replacement of the leadership of the special services.
Of course, there were exceptions. So, P.I.Ivashutin invariably stood at the head of the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR in the days of Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Andropov, Chernenko, and Gorbachev. And this despite the fact that the GRU has always been and is one of the key instruments of military, scientific, technical, and, in part, economic policy. P.I. Ivashutin put the absolute record of being in the highest position in military intelligence - 24 years, from March 1963 to June 1987, absolutely deservedly received in peacetime the title of general of the army and Hero of the Soviet Union. But the example of P.I. Ivashutin is, most likely, just an exception, confirming the rule - a new political leader puts his intelligence chief.
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