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Intelligence




Intelligence Directorate of the
General Staff of the Navy
Naval Intelligence Staff (GRU-Naval)

Bodies of Naval Intelligence

  1. Marine registration service Marine General Staff
  2. Marine emissary (2nd, maritime reconnaissance) Registration Management Division Field Staff RVSR February 1919 - January 1920
  3. Fourth (naval) Intelligence management department of the Red Army 1935-1938
  4. The Intelligence Department of National Commissariat of the Navy (Navy NC) 31.01.1938-15.10.1939
  5. 1st Department of the Navy NC 15.10.1939-20.03.1942
  6. Intelligence Directorate of the Naval Staff 20.03.1942-20.07.1950
  7. Main Intelligence Directorate MGSH 20.07.1950-30.04.1953
  8. 2nd Department of the General Staff of the Navy 30.04.1953-14.12.1960
  9. 14.12.1960-07.1975 Exploration
  10. Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Navy 07.1975-

Glavnoye Razvedyvatelnoye Upravlenie (GRU)The Soviet Navy first established its own intelligence service independent of the Red Army in 1940. During the Gteat Patriotic War (1941—45), it was subordinate to the Headquarters of the Supreme High Command (STAVKA). The service was charged with conducting naval intelligence operations with an emphasis on enemy-occupied coastal areas. This mission was carried out by intelligence directorates (RUs) attached to the headquarters of the Soviet Northern, Baltic, Black Sea, and Paci?c Fleets.

Each RU contained separate divisions for clandestine intelligence gathering, coastal reconnaissance, and covert operations. They also had intelligence analysis, signals intelligence, and communications units. The clandestine intelligence divisions maintained field offices in the most important ports in the fleet’s area of operations from which they recruited. Navy signals intelligence intercepts signals, decodes them and uses. Data exchanged between aircraft, ground troops and navy - but in the end all the data processed in Moscow, where there is a special structure, analyzing the information. For the Navy it is necessary to monitor the airwaves - for example, to determine the location of military aircraft of foreign countries.

The 5th Directorate of the GRU, or management of operational and tactical intelligence was "extractive" [collection] and subordinated to the first deputy head of the GRU. However, the specifics of its activity consisted in the fact that it did not engage in human intelligence, and directed the work of intelligence agencies staffs of military districts and fleets. In the direct subordination of the 5th Dicrtorate were intelligence departments of military districts and fleet intelligence. With the latter, in turn, four reconnaissance fleet management were subordinate.

It should be noted that if the intelligence directorates of military districts headquarters directly subordinate to the Office of the operational and tactical intelligence, the intelligence management staffs fleets - the Northern, Pacific, Baltic and Black Sea were combined into a single structure known as a Fleet Intelligence. This was due to the fact that if each military district has a well-defined area of ??responsibility, the Soviet Navy ships operated in almost all points of the world's oceans, and every ship was to constantly be fully informed about the likely opponent. Therefore, the chief of naval intelligence was the deputy chief of the GRU and led by four intelligence agencies naval headquarters and naval space reconnaissance control and information service. But in their daily activities, he obeyed the orders of the 5th GRU management.

Since the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet naval intelligence service’s responsibilities expanded to include worldwide naval intelligence and ocean surveillance. RUs attached to the headquarters ofthe four Soviet fleets continue to carry out these missions.

The fleet RUs were subordinate to the Main Naval Staff's Intelligence Directorate and the GRU. The Fifth Directorate (Operational Intelligence) of the GRU monitored the Main Naval Staff's Intelligence Directorate. The head of the Main Naval Staff’s Intelligence Directorate, reportedly a vice admiral who was also a deputy chief of the GRU, in turn, oversaw the activities of the fleet RUs.

Each RU contained divisions for reconnaissance, clandestine intelligence gathering, and covert or Spetsnaz operations. They also had intelligence analysis and signals intelligence divisions. The reconnaissance divisions were responsible for the operations carried out by the Korabl razved'ki or intelligence collection ships (AGIs) and the aircraft dedicated to naval reconnaissance. They coordinate the intelligence collection activities ofother vessels in the merchant and fishing fleets as well. The clandestine intelligence divisions collect intelligence through their field operative networks.

For instance, on 01 December 1952, in accordance with the order of number 00550 3 sentebrya 1951 People's Commissar of the Navy NG Kuznetsova, a part of exploration of the Pacific Fleet, was established 525th separate marine radio engineering battalion of special purpose (525 OMRTD osnaz) with a location in the city of Vladivostok. As part of the 525 OMRTD osnaz two divisions were formed: signals intelligence center (PP) and the center of electronic intelligence (RTR), as well as the division of the rear. On July 19, 1956, in accordance with Directive chief of the General Staff of the Navy as part of 525 OMRTD osnaz, 169th separate division messengers vessels (169 ODPS in / h 20444) was formed. It was the first tactical unit of such ships in the Soviet Navy intelligence system.

On October 1, 1969 on the basis of 19 OMRTO and part of it 169 JDC was formed a separate team osnaz ships of the Pacific Fleet Intelligence, based in the city of Vladivostok. In the history of the Soviet Navy, it was the first operational-tactical formation of scout ships. Separate Brigade ships osnaz directly subordinate to the chief of intelligence of the Pacific Fleet. On October 1, 1994 brigade reconnaissance ships of the Pacific Fleet, celebrated its 25 year anniversary in a completely new line-up. On the same day, in accordance with the directive of the General Staff of the Navy, he has finished its 42-year history and the first in the Pacific Fleet of the electronic intelligence - the 19th Marine Radio - Radio Engineering and detachment from its mobile teams, and in 2003 the coastal base.

VENONA was the final in a series of cover names for the US project to exploit cryptosystems used to protect what was initially believed to be Soviet diplomatic communications. The messages were encrypted using a complicated code that was then super enciphered by adding a numeric key stream from a one-time pad to the code. After some analysis, the cryptanalysts discovered they were really attacking five different systems being used by five different entities instead of one as originally thought. The five users for the five versions of VENONA were Soviet trade representatives, Soviet diplomats, and three Soviet spy agencies (the KGB, the Soviet Army General Staff Intelligence Directorate (GRU), and the Soviet Naval Intelligence, Staff (GRU-Naval)).

According to the Commander of the Navy Fleet Admiral SG Gorshkov, from July 1962 at the Naval Academy began operating the Department of Intelligence. This was due to the urgent need for the Navy for qualified specialists in the field of intelligence support naval forces. But this does not mean that the problems in the Academy of Naval Intelligence had not previously engaged. Studying theory and practice of shipbuilding, artillery, fortifications, and other military and marine sciences, with the time of Peter sought as much as possible to learn how things work in these areas in foreign countries. With the formation at the Marine Corps senior officers class naval intelligence was part of the relevant curriculum areas. However, only in 1949 at the Naval Academy appeared reconnaissance faculty in the department of the armed forces of the capitalist states and maritime surveillance.




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