Backfire A - TU-22MO -- The first TU-22M received the designation TU-22MO but was only produced in small quantities due to inadequate performance. In February 1973 two TY-22Mo bombers were transferred to a training center.
Backfire A - TU-22M -- The first prototype of the TU-22M was finished in July 1971. The test phase of the few TU-22M lasted four years, after which they were deployed with Soviet Naval Aviation.
Tu-22M1 ("45-01") -- modification of Tu-22M + reduced by 3 tons. Airframe mass + improved aerodynamic characteristics + redesigned air intakes + changed mechanization and geometry of the wing + remotely controlled cannon mount 9A-502 with two guns GSh- 23L and ammunition in 1200 shells + new painting with reduced visibility + automatic on-board control system ABSU-145 + X-22M missile modified according to the guidance system;
Backfire B - Tu-22M2 ("45-02") -- modernization of the Tu-22M1 + NK-144-22 engines of the 2 + series reduced aircraft weight by 1,500 kg. + NK-45 digital-analog navigation complex with an Orbit-10TS-45 BTsVM + ABSU-145M automatic on-board control system + PNA dual-channel panoramic and aiming radar + optical-television with 8-fold increase OPB-15T bomber sight + television TP-1KM rifle scope + Lilac station electronic warfare system + KDS-155 projectile cassette holder + anti-ship hypersonic cruise missile X-22H + areal Kh-22PSI missile. The first large-scale modification of the TU-22M was the TU-22M2, which conducted first flight tests in 1973. It was equipped with NK-22 engines, had range of 5100 km and a maximum speed of 1800 km/h. It carried up to three Kh-22 air-to-surface missiles. The aircraft did not have an automatic terrain-following system but was nevertheless capable of low-level flight to overcome air defenses. In 1976, the TU-22M2 was deployed with the air force and naval airforce. A total of 211 TU-22M2 aircraft were produced at the plant Nr.23 in Kazan between 1973 and 1983. Soon after series production of the TU-22M2 began, the aircraft received new NK-23 engines to increase speed and range. The NK-23 is a booster version of the NK-22 engine, which did not achieve the expected goals.
Backfire B - TU-22M2Ye -- Some aircraft were outfitted with new NK-25 engines and an sophisticated new flight-control system. They were designated as TU-22M2Ye, but did not achieve improved flight characteristics.
Tu-22MP -- modification of Tu-22M2 as jammer-designator and carrier of the Kh-22MP + Kurs-N radar + technical compartment with jamming equipment;
Tu-22MP -- modernization of the Tu-22MP in order to improve the consistency of the operation of the equipment;
Backfire C - TU-22M3 ("45-03") -- modifications of Tu-22M + NK-25 engines with electronic control system ESUD-25 + air intake design changed + airplane power supply system changed + electronically controlled brushless generators + constant speed drives + two alkaline nickels - 20NKBN-25U3 cadmium batteries + BKO L-229 Ural on-board defense complex + L-083 Mak heat direction finder, SPO LO06 Birch + interference stations SPS-151-153 Lilac and SPS-5M Fasol + APP-22MS passive interference reset machine (Avtomat-3) + ASO-2B-126 reflector reset machines (Avtomat-2) + one temporary carrying both missiles and bombs + the fueling rod was changed + titanium is widely used in the design + the weight of the aircraft is reduced by 2700 kg. + X-15 missiles. During subsequent upgrades the nose was lengthened, the air intakes changed and the maximum angle of the swept-variable geometry wings increased up to 65 degrees.
Tu-22LL -- modification of Tu-22M3 into a flying laboratory for full-scale flight research;
Tu-22M4 -- one aircraft was built;
Backfire - Tu-22M5 -- One aircraft was built. A modernization program for the theater-level Tu-22M3 Backfire-C bomber started in 1992, designated Tu-22M5. The upgraded aircraft are fitted with a new radar incorporating terrain avoidance capability. The upgraded Backfire carries four Kh101 subsonic cruise missiles, but its basic armament remains heavy supersonic ASMs, typically one or a maximum of three Kh-22 missiles (AS-4 Kitchen).
TU-22MR -- In 1985, the long-range reconnaissance aircraft TU-22MR entered service.
Tu-22MM ("45M") -- Deep modification for the Navy + original layout + two missiles X-45;
Tu-22DP -- long-range strike interceptor project;
TU-22ME -- Export modification. Improvement of flight and fighting characteristics continued, and in 1990 the TU-22ME was developed.
SPS Tu-344 -- modernization in the administrative as part of the conversion;
GPVRD "Rainbow-D2" -- modification of the Tu-22M3 into the aerospace system for putting small satellites weighing up to 300 kg into orbit + flying laboratory for the aerospace station;
Tu-22M3M ("object 45.03M -- product 9-A-2362") - modernization of Tu-22M4 + equipment for the X-32 missile (publ. 9-A-2362) + improved performance of the PNA airborne radar + new control system missile weapons + updated to the onboard power supply system + the ability to use the entire range of Tu-22M3 ammunition + sighting and computing system SVP-24-22 "Hephaestus" + identical equipment and engines Tu-160M2 + new avionics + use of long-range cruise missiles "Product 715 "(unified with Kyrgyz Caliber), X-101, X-555.
Tu-22M3R (products 4509) -- modification of Tu-22M3 into a long-range reconnaissance aircraft, target designator and jammer;
Tu-22M4 - (product 4510) -- modernization with the installation of new NK-32 engines + change of engine air intakes + PNK, Obzor radar + new electronic warfare complex + 3 UR X-32 or 10 UR X-57, or UPAB-1500 with television guidance system