Aircraft 64, Tu-64 / Tu-10
A practical program investigating the possibility of developing a Soviet atomic bomb began in early 1943, in response to the information the Soviet leadership had at that time about the British and American nuclear programs. The State Defense Committee issued a decree on 11 February 1943 calling for the establishment of Laboratory No. 2, which became the main organization responsible for the nuclear weapons development. In 1943, the First Main Directorate under the Council of Ministers of the USSR was formed, whose task was to coordinate the work on the atomic problem. At the same time, the question arose about the development of an aviation carrier for an atomic bomb.
Russian accounts of the history of this aircraft glide right over the question of the relationship between the chronology of this aircraft and the history of Soviet espionage against the Manhattan Project. Developing the Boeing B-29 was a program which rivaled the Manhattan Project in size and expense. The Boeing B-29 was designed in 1940 as an eventual replacement for the B-17 and B-24. The first one built made its maiden flight on 21 September 1942.
September 7, 1943 Deputy People's Commissar of the aircraft industry of the USSR A.S.Yakovlev sent the Chief Designer of Plant No. 156 AN Tupolev a letter in which he was instructed to develop a draft design and build a model of a heavy high-altitude 4-engine bomber with the M-71TK- M, hermetic cabins and cannon protection with the following data: maximum speed at an altitude of 10000 m is 500 km / h, a range of flight at a speed of 400 km / h with a full bomb load of 5000 km, with a bomb load of 7000-8000 kg - 6000 km, a bomb capacity inside the fuselage - 2 bombs of 5000 kg each. The project was to be submitted to the expert commission of the NCAP until 1 October 1943.
Thus, the design bureau of AN Tupolev, based on domestic technologies, materials and equipment, was to create a bomber that was close to the American B-29 aircraft. The design of the new aircraft, which received the designation aircraft "64" (Tu-64) in the design bureau , the official one-the Tu-10, began in May 1944 and was carried out in two versions at once: a bomber and a passenger transport aircraft. In a team of common species headed by BM Kondorskim, several dozen variants of layouts were considered. The range of options considered was very wide - from four-engine aircraft, close to B-24, B-17 and Me 264, to exotic layout solutions using a two-beam scheme.
The creation of a heavy high-speed high-altitude bomber in the USSR and the US took about the same time. At Boeing, its design began back in 1936. They built the B-17 "Flying Fortress", serial copies of which were actively used in the Second World War by the Americans and the British. The Soviet Union also had a team of VM Petlyakov working under the guidance of the aircraft designer AN Tupolev over an ANT-42 (TB-7) aircraft of similar design. However, at the end of the 1930s, the leaders of the USSR and the Air Force came to the conclusion that strategic aviation was not needed in the coming battle with fascism. This erroneous concept was finalized at a meeting of aviation workers in early 1939 in the Kremlin. Thus, the last hope for the extensive construction of the ANT-42 (TB-7) aircraft that were perfect for that time was buried.
The raging war quickly put everything in its place. It was necessary to catch up in the hardest conditions and in the years of military operations to build TB-7, renamed after the death of VM Petlyakov in Pe-8. (VMPetlyakov died in 1942 in a plane crash.)
The Aircraft 64, Tu-64 / Tu-10 was a project of a long-range bomber. The development of a high-altitude long-range bomber with a sealed cabin was started by OKB-156 by AN Tupolev in September 1943. The Chief Designer was DG Markov. The choice of variants of aerodynamic schemes of the aircraft is conducted, purging of models in TsAGI is conducted. The design was started in May 1944. In August 1944, the Air Force requirements were corrected in the direction of reducing the requirements for aircraft altitude. In September 1944 the full-scale model of the aircraft was completed. In February 1945, the requirements of the Air Force once again adjusted - in the crew added an airborne radar aircraft. The model was approved on April 27, 1945.
The name of the Air Force Tu-10 was reserved for the aircraft. In mid-1945, pilot production for the production of prototype bomber was started, production of equipment for the production of aircraft was started, production of drawings of the technical project was started. Development stopped due to the creation of a copy of the B-29 Superfortress - bomber Tu-4. The official order of the MAP of the USSR on the termination of development came out on April 16, 1947 - simultaneously with the completion of the construction of the first TU-4. All specified TTX-64 are designed.
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