Aircraft 64, Tu-64 / Tu-10 - Design
In August 1944, a preliminary design was prepared, according to which the "64" was a heavy bomber, made according to the normal scheme of a four-engine aircraft with a spaced vertical washer and a chassis with a nose wheel. The fuselage of the all-metal monoplane with the mid-mounted wing had a spindle shape and a monocoque design with a thick working sheathing. The wing of the double-lined structure was equipped with landing flaps-flaps of the "Fowler" type. At "64" it was intended to use engines such as AM-42TK, AM-43TK-300B, ACh-30BF (diesel engines), ASh-83FN or M-250. Under all types of these engines, design studies and calculations of flight characteristics were carried out.
The crew of the aircraft consisted of 8-9 people, located in two sealed and one leaking cabin. In the front compartment there was the first pilot - the commander of the ship, the second pilot, navigator-bombardier, flight engineer and radio operator; in the middle were the senior shooter, the left side shooter and the right side shooter; in the rear leaky cockpit was the arrow of the stern cannon, which could be replaced by one of the side shooters. Reservation of the aircraft "64" provided complete protection of the crew from the fire of 20-mm cannon fighter aircraft.
Bombardment weapons were designed for the possibility of a sharp increase in the bomb load when acting on targets that were not very far from the front line, and on the possibility of hanging bombs of the largest calibers, while the normal bomb load was 5 tons, the maximum allowable - 18 tons. The bombs were located in two compartments, ahead and behind the center wing. The front bomb compartment was divided into two parts, in each of which it was possible to suspend up to three 2-ton bombs. The rear compartment allowed to place two 5-ton bombs.
To protect against enemy fighter bomber attacks, a powerful system of rifle and cannon armament was created, providing full round-fire, with each point of the space being fired at least by four barrels. The guns were located in four turrets, pairwise above and below the fuselage, and also one or two guns were placed in the stern unit. Type of guns NS-23 and B-20. The turrets rotated 360 ° and had angles of fire upward to 80° and down to 10° (for the upper turrets, for the lower turrets, respectively + 10 ° and -80 °). The ammunition of shells in the turret was 200 rounds per barrel. Ammunition of the fodder - 300 shells per barrel with the installation of one gun, the firing angles from this installation gave a cone of 30 °. The control of the turrets is electrodistant, the senior shooter controlled the fire of the two upper turrets, the side arrows controlled the lower turrets, with each shooter able to fire both from one and from both turrets. The control of the front turrets, if necessary, could at any time be transferred to the front cabin. The fodder was used as an additional firing point for flights at low altitudes.
The aircraft equipment provided normal operation under any meteorological conditions, both during the day and at night. To unload the pilots from the continuous control of the aircraft during a long flight on an airplane an electric autopilot was installed. The autopilot contacted the bomber sight, which allowed the navigator to accurately take the aircraft to the target. The aircraft was equipped with radio stations of long-distance and inter-aircraft communication, radio-half-compass, radio compass, radio altimeter, identification equipment and other radio systems that allowed to confidently fly along a given route. All the basic control systems were electrified, except for the management of particularly loaded units (chassis, bomb hatches, etc.) that had a hydraulic drive.
Technologically, the aircraft was designed in such a way that it could be built by a flow method in large-scale production. For this purpose, the skeleton of the aircraft and the equipment were broken into a large number of separately manufactured units. In the design of the aircraft, a wide application of color casting, hot and cold stamping was supposed, which made it possible to mechanize the process of manufacturing aircraft parts.
During the final design stage, two variants of the "64" aircraft were considered at the final stage of the operation, differing from each other in geometric dimensions, the layout of the forward part of the fuselage, the composition of the equipment, armament and the placement of the crew.
In the first variant, the aircraft had a wingspan of 42 m and a length of the fuselage of 30 m. The pilots' workplaces in the anterior sealed cabin were raised, and the pilots themselves had individual fighter-type lights that went beyond the contour of the fuselage. The crew consisted of 10 people. An additional crew member (flight technician) was located in the front cabin. The landing gear of the chassis had two wheels. Tower guns NS-23 had ammunition of 400 rounds per barrel. The cannon cannon had two NS-23 cannons with the same ammunition.
In the second version of "64", which was adopted for further study, the wing span, the length of the aircraft, the dimensions of the front airtight cabin, the number of crew members were reduced. Refused from the individual lanterns of the pilots. The glazing of the cockpit was made according to the type of glazing of the aircraft B-29. The nose of the chassis became single-wheeled. The ammunition capacity of the turret guns was reduced by half, the stern installation became one-gun.
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