RT-2UTTH - Topol-M
The Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering (MIT) State Enterprise is the only plant in Russia building these missiles today. The modernized 45-ton Topol-M is the first strategic missile to be built by Russia without the participation of Ukraine or other CIS countries. The first test firing of a Topol-M took place on December 20, 1994. The flight and design testing of the Topol-M was successfully completed by 1995, and joint flight-testing is continuing, leading to a decision to commence series production. All the launches have been successful, but large-scale serial production has not started due the acute capital shortfalls experienced by the Russian government. In July 1997 the fourth launch successful of a Topol-M ICBM was made from the Strategic Missile Forces' Plesetsk State Test Site.
July 23, 2020 marked the 35th anniversary since the RT-2PM2 Topol-M intercontinental ballistic missile became operational in the Russian Armed Forces. The missile considered by the Russians as among the most lethal and reliable weapons in the world.
Work on the creation of a new complex began in the mid-1980s. In 1988, the Military-Industrial Commission under the Council of Ministers of the USSR approved the composition of the cooperation between ICBM and RK developers: the development of a stationary RK was entrusted to the Yuzhnoye State Design Bureau named after Academician M.K. Yangel, headed by Utkin V.F. , and the mobile ground missile system (PGRK) - to the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering (MIT). A total of 284 enterprises of the Russian Federation (80%), 47 enterprises of Ukraine (14%), 6 enterprises of Belarus (2%) and a number of enterprises of other republics of the USSR were envisaged to create a complex with RT-2PM2 ICBMs. Until 1991, the development of a new rocket was carried out by both organizations jointly. MIT developed most of the elements of the combat stage, including a solid propellant propulsion system, second and third stage engines, connecting compartments, Yuzhnoye Design Bureau - the first stage engine, head fairing and a variant of the liquid-fuel combat stage propulsion system. In 1991, the first RT-2PM2 rocket was manufactured at the Southern Machine-Building Plant for flight tests, which could not be carried out due to the breakup of the Soviet Union.
From the end of 1991, the development of the complex in both variants of basing was carried out by the Russian missile cooperation, headed by the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering, led until 1997 by the general designer and director. B.N. Lagutin and, from 1997 to the present, - General Designer and Director Yu.S. Solomonov. Further work on the development and creation of the RK with the RT-2PM2 ICBM was carried out on the basis of the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 275 of 22.02.1993. The list of enterprises and organizations involved in the creation and production of these missile systems was subsequently approved by Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 294-27 dated 18.05.1994.
Rocket fuel for the RT-2PM2 rocket was developed at the Lyubertsy Research and Production Center for Dual Technologies "Soyuz" under the leadership of Pak Z.P. and Milekhin Yu.M. (since 1996). Autonomous air-cooled inertial control system, located inside the sealed instrument compartment, was developed by the team of the Research and Production Center for Automation and Instrumentation named after Academician N.A. Pilyugin, headed by general designers V.L. Lapygin and Trunov Yu.V. . The nuclear warhead was created at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics under the leadership of the chief designer Dmitriev G.N. The command post for the mine-based version of the Republic of Kazakhstan was developed at the Central Design Bureau of Transport Engineering under the leadership of Chief Designer Leontenkov A.A.
Flight tests of the Republic of Kazakhstan with RT-2PM2 ICBMs took place at the 1st State Test Cosmodrome in Plesetsk. The first launch of the RT-2PM2 Topol-M ICBM in the silo version of the Republic of Kazakhstan took place on 12/20/1994 from a highly protected silo launcher (silo), previously intended for the UR-100N UTTKh missile, upgraded for the RT-2PM2 ICBM by the Vympel Experimental Design Bureau "(Moscow) under the leadership of the general designer Dragun D.K. During the tests, 10 missile launches were carried out, nine of which were successful. The last test launch of the ICBM RT-2PM2 "Topol-M" in the silo variant of the Republic of Kazakhstan was carried out on February 9, 2000 from the re-equipped Design Bureau of Special Machine Building (St. Petersburg) under the leadership of General Director Trofimov N.A.
By September 1999 the eighth test of the Topol-M missile had been taken place. The missile was launched from Plesetsk, north of Moscow, and landed at the Kura testing site on Kamchatka. On February 10th 2000, Russia successfully completed the tenth test flight of the Topol-M. The missile was launched from the Plesetsk cosmodrome to a target to a military base in Kura on the Kamchatka peninsula in the Russian Far East approximately 8,000 kilometers away. In accordance with the Decree of the Military Council of the Strategic Missile Forces of September 24, 1997, the silo version of the Topol-M missile system with the RT-2PM2 missile, consisting of two launchers and a unified command post, was put on experimental combat duty in the Tatishchevskaya Missile Division in December 1997. The first regiment (regiment commander - Colonel Petrovsky Yu.S.) with RT-2PM2 missiles in a mine-based version took up combat duty in the same missile division in December 1998. By decree of the President of the Russian Federation of July 13, 2000. Topol-M RK in the silo version of the base was adopted.
The first launch of the RT-2PM2 ICBM from a mobile launcher took place on September 20, 2000 from the 1st State Test Cosmodrome in Plesetsk. The SS-27 was fired from Plesetsk Arctic base in northern Russia to its target in the Russian Far East approximately 4,000 km away. In this 12th test, the missile was fired from a mobile launcher, rather than from a silo. On April 20, 2004, the RT-2PM2 ICBMs of the Topol-M PGRK were successfully launched to a maximum range of more than 11,000 km in the Pacific Ocean. The final fourth launch of the rocket of the mobile version of the Topol-M RK was carried out on December 24, 2004.
Despite the completion of the tests of the missile system and the putting on of the serial equipment for combat duty, the work on improving the complex was continued in the direction of development of the combat equipment (warheads), while the modified missile of the Topol complex was used as a carrier. On November 1, 2005, a successful launch of the RT-2PM Topol missile was carried out from the Kapustin Yar test range in the Astrakhan region as part of tests of elements of the new combat equipment - a single combat unit, a number of newly developed elements of the missile defense system and the stage of breeding, to which can be mounted up to six combat units, while the stage of breeding is unified for installation on an ICBM marine (Bulava) and ground (Topol-M) basing.
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