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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


RT-2UTTKh - Topol-M / SS-27

July 23, 2015 marked the 30th anniversary since the RT-2PM2 Topol-M intercontinental ballistic missile became operational in the Russian Armed Forces. The missile considered by the Russians as among the most lethal and reliable weapons in the world.

The single-warhead RT-2UTTH Topol-M is an advanced version of the silo-based and mobile Topol intercontinental ballistic missile. While the SS-25 Topol is generally similar to the American Minuteman-2, the more sophisticated SS-27 Topol-M is comparable to the American Minuteman-3. The Topol-M is 22.7 meters (75 feet) long and has a diameter of 1.95 meters (6 feet 3 inches). The missile weighs 47.2 metric tons and has a range of 11,000 kilometers (6,900 miles). The solid-propellant three-stage Topol-M missile complex, with a standardized (silo and mobile) missile, is to become the foundation of the Russian strategic nuclear forces in the 21st century. It is planned to accommodate Topol-M both on self-propelled launchers as well as in silos. High survivability of the mobile complex is achieved by the capability of off-road movement, comprising of continuous change in location and of a missile launch from any point along the movement route.

Work on the creation of a new complex began in the mid-1980s. The decision of the Military Industrial Commission of September 9, 1989, prescribed the creation of two missile systems (stationary and mobile) and a universal solid-fuel three-stage intercontinental ballistic missile for them. This experimental design work was called "Universal", the developed complex - designation RT-2PM2. The development of the complex was carried out jointly by the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering and Dnepropetrovsk "Yuzhnoye".

The rocket should have been unified for both types of complexes, but in the initial design, a difference in the combat unit breeding system was assumed. The combat stage for the missile-based missile was to be equipped with LPRE on the promising mono-fuel SPONIT. For the mobile MIT, he developed a propulsion system for solid fuel. There were also differences in the transport-launch container. For a rolling complex it was to be made of fiberglass. For stationary - from metal, with fastening on it of some systems of the ground equipment. Therefore, the rocket for the mobile complex received the index 15Zh55, and for the stationary one - 15Zh65.

The stationary complex RT-2PM2 includes 10 intercontinental ballistic missiles 15Zh65 mounted in silo launchers 15P765-35 (converted silos 15P735 and 15P718 missiles 15A35 and 15A18M) or 15P765-60 (converted missile silos 15J60), as well as the command post 15V222. The stand-alone launcher 15U175 of the mobile complex is a single 15H55 missile placed in a high-strength fiberglass TPK mounted on an eight-axle landing gear MZKT-79221.

The rocket 15Zh65 (15Zh55) consists of three stages with solid-propellant marching engines. March stages are made of composites, by winding like a cocoon. All three stages are equipped with a swivel nozzle for deflecting the thrust vector (there are no latticed aerodynamic rudders). The first stage has a mass of 26 tons, of which the weight of the stage is 3 tons, the length is 8.5 meters, the operating time is 60 seconds. The second stage has a mass of 13 tons, of which 1.5 tons, a length of 6 meters, the operating time of the stage is 64 seconds. The third stage has a mass of 6 tons, one of them is a stage, a length of 3.1 meters, and a running time of 56 seconds.

The launch method is mortar for both variants. The solid-propellant rocket engine of the rocket allows it to gain speed much faster than previous types of missiles of a similar class, created in Russia and the Soviet Union. This greatly complicates its interception by means of anti-missile defense in the active part of the flight.

The missile is equipped with a detachable warhead with one thermonuclear warhead unit with a capacity of 550 kt of TNT. The GP is also equipped with a set of means for overcoming missile defense. PCB PRO consists of passive and active false targets, as well as means of distortion of the characteristics of the head. Several dozen auxiliary correction engines, instruments and control mechanisms allow the combat unit to maneuver on the trajectory, making it difficult to intercept on the final section of the trajectory. Some sources claim that LCs are indistinguishable from combat units in all ranges of electromagnetic radiation (optical, infrared, radar).

Despite the completion of the tests of the missile system and the putting on of the serial equipment for combat duty, the work on improving the complex was continued in the direction of development of the combat equipment (warheads), while the modified missile of the Topol complex was used as a carrier. On November 1, 2005, a successful launch of the RT-2PM Topol missile was carried out from the Kapustin Yar test range in the Astrakhan region as part of tests of elements of the new combat equipment - a single combat unit, a number of newly developed elements of the missile defense system and the stage of breeding, to which can be mounted up to six combat units, while the stage of breeding is unified for installation on an ICBM marine (Bulava) and ground (Topol-M) basing.

In 2013, the first mobile machines (of which 9 in the Teikovo missile division) of engineering support and camouflage (MIOM) were put on board the mobile missile systems Topol-M. The machines provide disguise (sweeping) of traces of mobile mobile missile systems that went on duty, as well as the creation of high-contrast, well-visible from the satellites traces to false combat positions.




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