SS-18 Mod 4 - R-36UTTh
The SS-18 Variant 4 carries at least 10 MIRVs and was likely designed to attack and destroy ICBMs and other hardened US targets. According to Western estimates, the variant 4 may have been capable of carrying as many as 14 RVs [this may be a product of observations with the deployment of countermeasures intended to overcome ballistic missile defense, or to confuse American attack characterization systems]. By November 1979 the flight tests of the MIRVed missile were completed. Three regiments were put on alert by September 1979. During 1980 a total of 120 SS-18 variant 4 missiles were deployed, replacing the last remaining R-36 missiles. Through 1982-1983 the remaining R-36M missiles were replaced with the new R-36M UTTh.
The total number of deployed missiles on operational launcher reached a maximum of 308, a ceiling established in the SALT-1 treaty. The SS-18 variant 4 force was believed to possess the potential capability to destroy 65 to 80 percent of US ICBM silos by placing two nuclear warheads against each of its US targets. Even after this type of attack, it was estimated that more than 1,000 SS-18 warheads would be available for further strikes against targets in the US. After 1988 the SS-18 Mod 4s were partially replaced by the new R-36M2 "Voivode".
With the creation of the new R-36M UTTKh missile, the characteristics of the combat effectiveness of strategic missile systems were sharply increased through the use of new technical solutions: the introduction of a more advanced than its predecessor, the R-36M (15A14) ICBM, an autonomous control system with an onboard digital computer system (BTsVM ), the placement of missiles and the control center of a combat missile system in high-security structures, the possibility of remote re-targeting before launch, the presence of more advanced combat equipment on missiles with individual targeting warheads and a developed complex of means of overcoming missile defense, using a more advanced combat control system.
A large degree of borrowing units and systems from the 15P014 complex and their development by industrial enterprises ensured the high manufacturability of the systems and equipment of the created complex and the possibility of producing it at minimal cost in a short time. In general, the layout scheme of the ICBM 15A18 is similar to that of the ICBM 15A14 and includes the first, second and warhead (warhead) stages. As part of the 15A18 rocket, the I and II stages of the 15A14 rocket were used without modifications. The new warhead (MC) divided into 10 BBs was placed on a special two-tiered platform with a single aerodynamic fairing. At the breeding stage, in order to create the most optimal conditions for breeding APs in probable theaters of operations, for the first time, special devices for separating and twisting APs around the axis at the time of their separation from the platform were developed and used.
The combat missile system with R-36M UTTKh missiles includes 6-10 combat launch sites with silo launchers (silo launchers) of the single launch (OS) type of high security and one unified command post (UCP) 15V155 of high security of the container type, connected by cable lines with all silos. The R-36M UTTKh missile was on combat duty in a refueled ampoule state in a transport and launch container, which was installed in the silo. The UKP, like the ICBM, was also placed in a special container on a suspension in the mine on special depreciation.
Liquid propellant rocket engines of the dilution stage, as well as sustainer engines of the first and second stages (all stages use nitrogen tetroxide and asymmetric dimethylhydrazine as fuel) were developed in the Voronezh Design Bureau of Chemical Automation under the leadership of A.D. Konopatov. The control system was developed in the Kharkov NPO "Khartron" under the leadership of Sergeev V.G. High-security silos were developed by Branch No. 2 of the Central Design Bureau of Mechanical Engineering (now - GNIP "Scientific and Production Association Vympel", Moscow), headed by Baryshev V.M. Command posts were developed at the Central Design Bureau of Heavy Engineering (Moscow) under the leadership of N.A. Krivoshein. and Aksyutina B.R. Ground processing equipment for the R-36M UTTKh ICBM was developed at the Design Bureau of Special Machine Building (Kazakhstan). Leningrad) under the leadership of the chief designer Stepanov V.S. Serial production of R-36M UTTKh ICBMs was organized at the Southern Machine-Building Plant in Dnepropetrovsk. The production of command posts is deployed at the State Obukhovsky Plant OJSC (St. Petersburg).
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