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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

SS-18 Mod 5 - R-36M2 "Voivode"

The SS-18 variant 5, a newer, more accurate version of the R-36M housed in converted silos allowing the SS-18 to remain the bulwark of the SRF's hard-target-kill capability. Variant 5 carries 10 MIRVs, each having a higher yield than the variant 4 warheads. The Mod-5 warheads have nearly twice the yield of the variant-4 (approximately 750 kt to 1 megaton). Russian sources suggest a yield of 550-750 Kt each. The increase in the variant 5's warhead yield, along with improved accuracy helped allow the Soviets to maintain their hard-target-kill wartime requirements even with the 50 percent cut in heavy ICBMs the START agreement required.

The technical proposals to build a modernized heavy ICBM were made in June 1979 and was subsequently designated R-36M2 "Voivode" with the industrial index number 15A18M. The design of the R-36 M2 "Voivode" was completed in June 1982. The R-36M2 utilized a series of new engineering features. The second stage engine is completely integrated with the fuel tank (earlier this was only used on SLBMs). In addition, the design of the transport-launching canister was altered. Unlike the R-36M, the 10 warheads on the post-boost vehicle are located on a special frame in two circles. The flight tests of the R-36M2 equipped with 10 MIRVs began in March 1986 and were completed in March 1988. The first regiment with these missiles was put on alert on 30 July 1988, being deployed on 11 August 1988.

Stationary-based missile system 15P018M fixed-based missile system (RK) 15P018M with a fourth-generation intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) R-36M2 "Voevoda" was developed in accordance with the tactical and technical requirements of the USSR Ministry of Defense and the Decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR of 08/09/1983. The Voevoda complex was created as a result of the implementation of a project to improve the strategic complex with R-36M UTTKh (15P018) heavy-class ICBMs and is designed to engage all types of targets protected by modern missile defense systems in any conditions of combat use, incl. with repeated nuclear impact on the position area of the missile division.

Flight design tests of the R-36M2 complex were carried out at Baikonur from March 1986 to July 1988. Tests of the complex with all types of combat equipment were completed in September 1989. The first missile regiment with the R-36M2 ICBM (regiment commander - Lieutenant Colonel Khmelev V.A.) stood up on combat duty 07/30/1988 in the Dombarovsk missile division. By the Decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR of 08/11/1988, the missile system with the R-36M2 ICBM was put into service. RK with R-36M2 ICBMs were put on combat duty in missile divisions stationed near the cities of Derzhavinsk, Dombarovsky and Uzhur.

The R-36M2 ICBM is the most powerful of all ICBMs of this class. Being the basis for the creation of asymmetric countermeasures for a multi-layered missile defense system with space-based elements, the missile system with R-36M2 ICBMs has no analogues among domestic and foreign RK in terms of technological level. One of the main advantages of the created RK is the ability to provide missile launches in the conditions of a retaliatory strike under the influence of ground and high-altitude nuclear explosions (NE), including the possibility of a successful launch after a non-damaging nuclear explosion directly at the launcher (LA) and without reducing combat readiness when exposed to neighboring PU.

The effectiveness of the combat use of the R-36M2 ICBMs has been significantly increased by improving the accuracy of hitting, the use of high-powered charges, increasing the area of the disengagement zone for warheads (BB), the possibility of launching from the constant combat readiness mode according to one of the planned target designations, as well as operational re-targeting and launching according to any unscheduled target designation, transferred from the top management, increasing the duration of autonomy and reducing the time of combat readiness compared to the previous version of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

The development of the RK was carried out on the basis of the created infrastructure of the 15P018 complex that preceded it, using the existing engineering structures, communications and systems to the maximum extent. The rocket retained the schemes of launch, stage separation, separation of the warhead (warhead), breeding of AP elements, which showed a high level of technical excellence and reliability as part of the 15A18 rocket. At the same time, an increase in the energy capabilities of the rocket was achieved by improving the characteristics of the sustainer engine, introducing an optimal shutdown scheme for the propulsion system, performing the second stage propulsion system in a "recessed" version in the fuel cavity and improving aerodynamic characteristics.

As a result of the introduction of advanced technical solutions, the energy capabilities of the rocket have been increased by more than 10% compared to the 15A18 rocket, subject to the conditions of size and launch weight restrictions imposed by the SALT-2 Treaty. In addition, the universal liquid dispensing system is operated as part of the rocket (unlike the 15A18 rocket), which made it possible to carry out the complete assembly of the rocket in the conditions of the manufacturer, simplify the technology of work at combat facilities, and increase the reliability and safety of operation.

A new one-piece fairing has been developed for the rocket, which provides reliable protection of the warhead from the damaging factors of nuclear explosives and improves aerodynamic characteristics. the universal liquid dispensing system is operated as part of the rocket (unlike the 15A18 rocket), which made it possible to carry out the complete assembly of the rocket in the conditions of the manufacturer, simplify the technology of work at combat facilities, and increase the reliability and safety of operation.

A number of fundamentally new ideas were implemented in the control system, the solution of which was provided by a new powerful on-board digital computer complex, the main element base of which was developed and manufactured at the Minsk Production Association "Integral".

The R-36M2 ICBM was developed at the Yuzhnoye State Design Bureau named after Academician M.K. Yangel (Dnepropetrovsk) under the leadership of General Designer Utkin V.F. Liquid propulsion engines of the first and second stages, rocket engines of the dilution stage use nitrogen tetroxide and asymmetric dimethylhydrazine as fuel. The engines of the first stage were developed at the Design Bureau "Energomash" under the leadership of the chief designer Radovsky V.P. The propulsion systems of the second stage were developed in the Voronezh Design Bureau of Chemical Automation under the guidance of the chief designer A.D. Konopatov. The control system was developed in the Kharkov NPO "Electropribor" (now NPO "Khartron") under the leadership of Sergeev V.G. Mine launchers of high security were developed at the Design Bureau of Special Machine Building under the leadership of Stepanov V.S. Command posts and ground processing equipment were developed at the Central Design Bureau for Heavy Engineering under the leadership of Aksyutin B.R. Serial production of R-36M2 ICBMs (including liquid-propellant rocket engines) has been deployed at the Southern Machine-Building Plant (Dnepropetrovsk).

On the basis of the R-36M ICBM, a conversion launch vehicle (LV) "Dnepr" was created with an elongated space warhead developed by the Yuzhnoye State Design Bureau and manufactured by the State Enterprise "PO YuMZ im. A.M. Makarov” commissioned by ISC “Kosmotras” for launches of large spacecraft with a length of more than 5 m and a diameter of up to 2.7 m. Dombarovskoy missile division (R-36M2). The Ukrainian-Russian company Kosmotras, which is upgrading RS-20 type ICBMs into the Dnepr conversion launch vehicle, intends to gradually transfer launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome to Russia to the positional area of the missile division stationed near the town of Yasny, Orenburg region.

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Page last modified: 18-02-2022 19:01:06 ZULU