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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


"I'd like to thank the 'Russian' scientists, but
I don't speak German..."
Bob Hope, post-Sputnik

Early Missiles

What did we know and when did we know it? During the early years of the Cold War, the arms race and missile gap were accompanied by rather sparse hard intelligence about Soviet activities. Prior to the advent of satellite reconaissance, imagination took over where facts were lacking. Contemplation of the assessement challenges of the early Cold War provides some context for the challenge of understanding the contemporary North Korean programs.

Amron Katz wrote in 1957 that "It seams clear that were either we or the Soviets to possess a truly secret weapon, knowledge of which would be kept from the other, such a weapon would play a negligible role as a deterrent. Hence if we or the Soviets expect our weapons to play a part in formulation and maintenance of a deterrent posture both of us had, better let the other fellow know what we have. We have little doubt that such missiles as the United States has and will develop will continue to be prominently publicized through conventional unclassified and declassified media. It is the Soviet missiles that concern us... they might actually stage a parade in which these missiles are dragged by by the numbers on the ground."

Eilene Galloway, in April 1957, noted that "Information on the Soviet rocket and missile program can be gleaned from unofficial sources and estimates. Many of the articles and books, written in several languages through the years since the war, appear to be sober appraisals based upon interviews with some German rocket scientists who have returned from the Soviet Union to Germany, technicians and refugees who worked on or observed missile ramps and other developments while employed behind the Iron Curtain, foreign press reports, technical publications, and some opinions of those who have testified before congressional committees. From such sources information emerges on the existence of the Soviet missile program, its broad outlines, and its development in connection with nuclear warheads. If all the sources were equal in weight of authority and date of reporting, they could be synthesized into one account of Soviet missile progress. In this problematical area, however, perhaps the best result can be achieved by portraying several of the most significant estimates of Soviet rocket and missile strength."

"It is not known how long the Soviet Union has been working on an ICBM, but the basis for such a missile was worked out by the Germans at Peenemunde in plans for the A-10. An improved A-10 — the M-103 — was designed at Khimki, a research center near Moscow. Its calculated range is about 3,500 miles. Whether or not it has been tested isn’t known. However, the numerous missile facilities along the U.S.S.R.'s northern fringes, within the Arctic Circle, suggest a very long-range missile test range rivaling USAF's Missile Test Center that extends into the South Atlantic from Cape Canaveral, Fla., or the British facilities at Woomera, Australia."

In June 1956, Erik Bergaust, managing editor of Missiles and Rockets, described Soviet missile progress in comparison with that of the United States. Bergaust reported on improvements on the German V-2's resulted in the T-1 and T-4 missiles with wings. The Soviet arsenal also included the T–2 long-range missile, the T–3 ICBM, the T-4A supersonic glide missile, and other types which compare to the United States Matador and Regulus. For army field use, a variety of artillery and nuclear armed rockets are available in operational numbers. An artillery rocket named the T-7A can carry a nuclear warhead and is said to have the simplicity of the American Honest John and the range of the Corporal.

A news item in Interavia, June 1956, gave a report on Soviet guided missiles. Two Soviet guided missiles were said to be in service or about to go into service: one of them is reportedly suitable for launching from submarines and has a range of about 1,500 miles. The second — T-2 or M-103 — was apparently a 2-stage ballistic missile with a range of about 1,800 miles, largely based on the wartime German A—4 and A–9 developments. It was also reported that work an a 3-stage long-range weapon, the T–3, for a range of 5,000 miles was underway.

A New York Times story on 31 January 1958 reported that the United States was able to monitor the eight-hour countdown broadcasts for Soviet missile launches from Tyuratam (now Baykonur), Kazakhstan, which provided enough lead time to dispatch US aircraft to observe the splashdowns and, thus, collect data used to estimate the accuracy of the intercontinental ballistic missiles. Following publication of the article, Moscow cut the countdown broadcasts to four hours, too little time for US aircraft to reach the landing area. Occurring in the midst of the missile-gap controversy, the publication of the press item left President Eisenhower livid, according to Wayne Jackson in Allen Welsh Dulles, Director of Central Intelligence (July 1973, declassified history, Volume IV, pp. 29-31, in Record Group 263, National Archives). According to the same source, some intelligence was lost forever, and, to recoup the remainder, the US Air Force had to rebuild an Alaskan airfield at a cost of millions of dollars.

NATO Letter, Volume 7 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Information Service., 1959, reported that "In the field of missiles the Russians have made notable progress and they have now in operational quantities missiles with nuclear warheads of different types, ground-to-ground in the short and medium ranges, ground-to-air, air-to-ground and air-to-air. In addition inter-continental and intermediate range ballistic missiles have been in service since July, 1958.

In the preface to the book SPACECRAFT AND MISSILES OF THE WORLD, 1962, by James Baar and William E. Howard [New York, Harcourt, 1962. 117 p.] appeared the following note: "As for the material on Soviet missiles, it is considered to be the best available in the West outside of the official intelligence community. Relatively little technical information on Soviet missiles and spacecraft has ever been released by the Soviet Union."

Missiles and Rockets [Volume 13, Issues 1-14 - Page 148] noted in 1963 that T-7 was originally a research rocket, adopted as an antiaircraft weapon. The three missiles called J-1, J-2, and J-3 are winged target drones with turbojet propulsion, but could be used in the same way as the German V-1. At the same time rockets named Golem were developed by the Soviet Navy. Golem-1 was a liquid-fuel, 54-ft rocket with a range of 400 mi. For close-in use, T-5C is smallest of Soviet battlefield missiles. A solid-fuel rocket, aimed rather than guided, it carries atomic charges up to 10 miles. Russia's 50-mile missile, the T-7A, is 35 feet long, can carry a nuclear warhead, guided from the ground.

The Department of the Army AEROSPACE MANAGEMENT magazine, March 1962, was the definitive source of early intelligence on Soviet missile developments. "Some of the claims, by U.S. intelligence, about the dearth of information are legitimate, others are mythical. Aerospace Management has worked for two years assembling data on Russia's missile arsenal. The findings of these studies are summarized in the following nine pages. This is the first complete description of . . . WHAT THE SOVIETS HAVE . . ."

This US Army publication came out shortly before the landmark "Soviet Space Programs: Organization, Plans, Goals, And International Implications. Staff Report Prepared For The Use Of The Committee On Aeronautical And Space Sciences, United States Senate, [By The Library Of Congress], 31 May 1962. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1962. 399 P. (87th Congress, 2d Session.)

The volume "Missiles and ventures into space: Progress report, 1962-1963" Pamphlet, 70-5-11 published in October 1963, which contained the Aerospace Management data on Soviet rockets, was the last of the series of DA Pamphlets begun in 1958 at the request of the Office, Chief of Research and Development, Department of the Army. The year 1962 was an inflection point, at which the Charles Shelden studies [illustrated by Charles Vick] replaced the US Army series.

DescriptionCorrelate
T-1
M-101


Russian name Pobeda [Victory] Military designation M-101. Surface to surface mobile missile.Length 62 ft, weight, nearly 40,000 lb. Range 600-775 miles, 2550-lb nuclear warhead. Radio guided. 77,000-lb thrust by LOX/hydrocarbon fueled booster. Copy of German A-4 missile. Reportedly over 3000 in use, with a few given to Red Chinese troops. First seen in MOSCOW, 1956.
R-5 / SS-3 SHYSTER

R-5 / SS-3 SHYSTER
T-2
M-103


Surface-to-surface missile, supposed to be the first Soviet rocket used to test H-bomb warhead. Military designation, M-103. Reported length, 65.5 ft, 80 ft, and l00-plus feet. Liquid­ fueled booster. Range, 1800 miles. Speed, about Mach 13. Based in Soviet satellite countries. Reportedly, 700 in service. T-2 developed from plans of German rocket A-4/A-9/ A-10 combination found by the Russians in Nordhausen after World War II. By one 1958 account, the T-2 was approximately 125 feet in length, 15 feet in diameter and had a range of 1,800 miles. The first-stage propulsion system was a liquid-propellant rocket engine utilizing liquid oxygen and kerosene. By 1960, the T-2 was the Russian IRBM. It was propelled by two liquid fuel engines, has a range of over 1,600 miles and reaches an altitude of 260 miles. Speed 5,100 m.p.h., length 91 feet.

Aviation Week - Volume 67 - Page 39 reported T-2 is the Russian IRBM. It is propelled by two liquid fuel engines, has a range of over 1,600 miles and reaches an altitude of 260 miles. Speed 5,100 m.p.h., length 91 feet.

R-12 / SS-4 SANDAL

T-3

Surface-to-surface missile, 500,000-lb thrust booster. Radio­inertial guidance. Range, 5000 miles. Speed, 15,000 mph. Apogee, 280 miles. Nuclear or HE warhead. Missile reported to be able to hit within 10 miles of target. Also reported that 50 were produced in 1959 and 1200 to be built by end of 1963. Operational.

Aviation Week - Volume 67 - Page 39 reported the T-3 is the Russian ICBM. It is propelled by three liquid fuel engines, has a range of over 5,000 miles and reaches an altitude of 375 miles. Speed 16,000 m.p.h., length 110 feet.

R-16/SS-7 Saddler

T-3 Mk 1
M-104


Surface-to-surface ICBM, in operational service in 1959. Military designation, M-104. Length, more than 88 ft. Weight, 176,000 lb. Range, 4950 miles. Speed, Mach 20. Liquid- fueled. 2200-lb thermonuclear warhead. Radio-inertial guidance. Guid­ance in second stage.
R-16/SS-7 Saddler

T-3 Mk 2

Surface-to-surface ICBM under development. Length, 108 ft. Weight, 352,000 lb. Range, 6500 miles. Speed, Mach 20+. Liquid propellant. 2500-lb thermonuclear warhead. Inertial guidance in second stage. Used to launch satellites into space. First used in 1957.
R-7 Sapwood

T-3A

Surface-to-surface liquid-fueled ICBM. Model A: Range, 6000 miles. Thrust, 525,000 lb. Model B: Range, 7500 miles. Speed, 15,000 mph. Thrust, 700,000 lb. Model A production believed stopped in favor of the advanced version. Model B believed to be a prototype for one used in the T-4A antipodal missile. Nuclear warhead. Operational.


no discernable counterpart
T-3A Mk 1

Surface- to- surface ICBM in operational status. Length, 91.5 ft. Weight, 175,000 lb. Range, 6200 miles. Speed, Mach 21+. Liquid propellant. 1100-lb thermonuclear warhead. Programed guidance. An advanced T-3 fired from fixed bases. In production, and being considered for hardened sites.
R-9 Sasin

T-3A Mk 2

Surface-to-surface ICBM. Liquid propellant. Length, 101.5 ft. Weight, 395,000 lb. Range, 6800 miles. Speed, Mach 22.1. Has 1250-lb thermonuclear warhead. Programed guidance. Fired from fixed bases. Operational. In mass production. Reported to be the booster used for the Soviet man-in-space shot.
R-7 Sapwood

T-4
M-102


Surface- to- surface IRBM. Military designation, M-102. Two­ stage, both liquid-fueled. Length, possibly 50 to 55 ft. Weight, 35 tons. Payload, 1800 lb, either nuclear or HE. Range, 1000 miles. Speed, 9500 mph. Some of its configurations believed to be in the T-4A upper stages. Developed from the German A- 10. Stubby wings on some versions. Experimental status. Not too successful, by report. The T-4 was another version of the German V-2, differing only by the addition of wings. This vehicle was a production item and was commonly known as the winged T-1. It has the same engine as the T-l and a reported maximum range of 1,000 miles. This missile was also recognized as a test bed for the T-4A, hypersonic glide bomber. By 1960s the T-4 was descrived as a two-stage IRBM with a range of 1,000 miles. It has an 1,800 lb. atomic warhead.

Aviation Week - Volume 67 - Page 39 reported the T-4 is a two-stage IRBM with a range of 1,000 miles. It has an 1,800 lb. atomic warhead

R-2 / SS-2 Sibling

T-4A

Aero Digest reported in 1955 on a "Soviet Missile missile, the T-3 intercontinental ballistic missile and the T-4A supersonic glide missile. These developments probably form the nucleus of Soviet tactical and strategic long range weapons."

T-4A IRBM: This was believed to be a boost-glide type of rocket somewhat similar to the Dyna-Soar vehicle under development by the United States (Missiles and Rockets, Apr 1960, p 73). It was credited with the capability of carrying a 3,100 pound nuclear payload. The designation T-4A was reserved for an antipodal bomber of the Sanger type; apparently the development was stopped early. While the T-4 in general outline looked much like any other large missile, the T-4A was a three- stage, winged affair, with two booster rockets to help get it off the ground. It was not a manned vehicle, but presumably would be used for testing and developmental purposes, to prove out hardware that would be used in a manned glide bomber. Russian thinking along these lines was indicated by Prof. Georgi Iosifovich Pokrovsky, a Maj. -Gen. in the Engineering Technical Services, writing in Sovetskaya Aviatsia (July 16, 1957). In 1957, it was reported that the latest intelligence from Russia indicated the Soviets have tested an 800,000 lb. rocket engine for their T-4A hypersonic glide bomber, and the prototype weapon system was close to flight test stage.

NATO Letter, Volume 7 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Information Service., 1959, reported that “The assertion is made in a book entitled Physics of Jet Motors and Jet Weapons, published in Munich in 1957. Its author is Dr. Eugene Saenger, director of the Stuttgart Institute for Jet Propulsion Physics. “The 52-year-old Austrian-born scientist is understood to be directing research work for the United States Government and the West German Transport Ministry. “In the manuscript, Dr. Saenger says, the Soviet missile reported tested with success was either the T-3 or the T-4A, ..."

Aviation Week - Volume 67 - Page 39 reported , “there is some evidence that the U.S.S.R. is prepared to fire strategic missiles from mobile launchers mounted on rail cars.” The rail-mounted missile is believed to be a boost-glide weapon, known as the T-4A. This missile is boosted upward by a rocket engine, then glides to its target like an aircraft. It carries a 3,100-pound payload. The range is not known, but since it is regarded as a strategic weapon it presumably can travel 1,500 miles or more. Latest intelligence from Russia indicates the Soviets have tested an 800,000 lb. rocket engine for their T-4A hypersonic glide bomber, and the prototype weapon system is close to flight test stage."

The Soviets were believed to be developing more advanced missiles, perhaps using "exotic" fuel additives, and were widely thought to be far advanced in work on the "T-4A," the long-rumored Sanger manned "antipodal" rocket bomber.

The T-4 is a winged rocket now in production. A development of the T-1, it has a range of about 900 miles. It utilizes the same powerplant as the T-1, and can be controlled near the end of its flight due to its glide characteristics. The T-4A is the designation of the Soviet's rocket "skip" plane. The last stage of this rocket is 68 feet long and uses three liquid rocket engines.

An article in a 1960 issue of Missiles and Rockets titled "Russian Dyna-Soar Flying?" reported rumors that the Soviets were conducting flight tests on a piloted "semi-ballistic missile" called the T-4A. According to information reaching the West, the T-4A was "quite similar in design" to Eugen Sanger's antipodal space bomber. In fact, the Soviets had taken an interest in Sanger's design shortly after the German surrender in 1945.

By March 1960, the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, USAF headquarters, estimated that the Soviets were at least conducting research directed towards the development of a boost—glide vehicle. Such a system could lead to the development of a craft capable of performing reconnaissance and bombing missions.

Soviet military officials obtained copies of Sanger's analysis at the end of the war and became interested in the possibilities of boost-glide flight; Stalin even ordered the kidnapping--if it could be arranged--of the Sanger Bredt team. In 1958, an article which appeared in a Soviet aviation journal referred to a Russian glide­bombing system, capable of attaining an altitude of 295,000 feet and striking a target at a distance of 3,500 nautical miles, While propaganda, it led to an American aviation periodical reporting that Russian scientists were developing an antipodal, glide­ missile, designated the T-4A. By March 1960, the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, USAF headquarters, estimated that the Soviets were at least conducting research directed towards the development of a boost-glide vehicle. Such a system could lead to the development of a craft capable of performing reconnaissance and bombing missions. Air Force intelligence analysts believed that limited flight tests of the manned stage could begin in 1962 and an operational system could be available by 1967. .

Missiles and Rockets - 1963 - Volume 13, Issues 1-14 - Page 148 reported on the T-4A (Air Force) TYPE: Surface-to-surface ICBM STATUS: Development PERFORMANCE: Range, over 10,000 mi.; apogee, 186.3 mi.; speed, 13,660 mph FRAME: Length, 121.02 ft.; wing span, 65.6 ft.; max. diameter, 10.2 ft.; launch weight, 230,000 lbs.

Missiles and Rockets noted in 1963 that "T-4A IRBM: This is believed to be a boost-glide type of rocket somewhat similar to the Dyna-Soar vehicle under development by the United States. While the T-4 in general outline looks much like any other large missile, the T-4A is a three- stage, winged affair, with two booster rockets to help get it off the ground. It is not a manned vehicle, but presumably would be used for testing and developmental purposes, to prove out hardware that would be used in a manned glide bomber. Russian thinking along these lines was indicated last summer by Prof. G. Pokrovsky, a Maj. -Gen. in the Engineering Technical Services,

Missiles and Rockets [Volume 13, Issues 1-14 - Page 148] noted in 1963 that the designation T-4A was reserved for an antipodal bomber of the Sanger type; apparently the development was stopped early. ( In any case the first confirmed Soviet work on lifting reentry did not occur until the launch of a subscale lifting body in 1982)

Burya La-350

T-5

The T-5 had a range of 100 mi at Mach 4.35, and a ceiling of 65,000 ft. Length: 32.2 ft; Diameter 2.8 ft. 9.4 fin span; Weight: 4850 lb; Booster: Liquid. Identified in 1948, it was a copy of the German "Rheinbote" design. Also used as surface-to-air missile.

Aviation Week - Volume 67 - Page 39 reported the T-5 is a three-stage ballistic missile with a range of 100 miles.



no discernable counterpart
T-5B

Service: Army. Type: Surface-to-Surface. Status: Operational. Length: 30.0 ft; Diameter 2.5 ft, 5.0 ft fin span; Weight: 5750 lb; Powerplant: Solid propellant, 22,0001b thrust; Warhead: 1180 lb high-explosive or nuclear; Guidance: None. Range 25 mi at Mach 2.3. First seen in 1957. Mounted on KW-85 or Joseph Stalin ll AFV tank chassis. Standard in all Soviet Armored Units.

Aviation Week - Volume 67 - Page 39 reported T-5B and T-5C are smaller versions of the T-5 carried on self-propelled launchers with ranges from eighteen to twenty-five miles.

FROG-1

T-5C

For close-in use, T-5C was smallest of Soviet battlefield missiles. A solid-fuel rocket, aimed rather than guided, it carries atomic charges up to 10 miles. Range 25 mi at Mach 3.3. Introduced in November 1957. Mounted on PT-76 amphibian tank chassis. Very mobile. New version in production. Length: 25.0 ft; Diameter: 1.1 ft, 2.1 ft fin span; Weight: 4400 lb; Powerplant: Solid propellant, 23,200-lb thrust; Warhead: 1100 lb high-explosive or nuclear; Guidance: None.

Aviation Week - Volume 67 - Page 39 reported T-5B and T-5C are smaller versions of the T-5 carried on self-propelled launchers with ranges from eighteen to twenty-five miles.

FROG-2

T-6

Service: Air Force, Army; Type: Surface-to-Air; Status: Operational; Length: 22.0 ft; Diameter: 28 ft, 5.2 fin span; Weight: 3950 lb; Booster: Four solid propellant, 580-lb total thrust; Sustainer: Two solid 2200-lb thrust; Warhead: 88 lb high-explosive; Guidance: Radar; Range 25 mi at Mach 2.4; Ceiling 62,000 ft; Finned nose cone separated by explosive bolts and warhead coasts to target on ballistic trajectory. In wide use, claimed highly efficient for air defense.
S-125 SA-3 GOA

T-7A

Russia's 50-mile missile, the T-7A, was 35 feet long, can carry a nuclear warhead, be guided from the ground. T-7 was originally a research rocket, adopted as an antiaircraft weapon. By 1962 the T-7 was described as Length: 27.8 ft; Diameter: 2.7 ft, 9.6 ft fin span; Weight: 8800 lb; Powerplant: Solid propellant 11,450-ib thrust; Warhead: 1770 lb high-explosive or nuclear; Guidance: Radio-inertial; Range 100 mi at Mach 4.2; Mounted on KW-85 tank chassis. Launched from vertical position. Very mobile. Comparable to US Army "Corporal" missile.

Aviation Week - Volume 67 - Page 39 reported the T-7a is a guided missile with a range of 100 miles.

FROG-5

T-8

Service: PVO (Air Force); Type: Surface-to-Air; Status: Operational; Length: 13.6 ft; Diameter: 1.05 ft. 4.8 ft fin span; Weight: 2090 lb; Booster: Two solid propellant, 4000-lb total thrust; Sustainer: Liquid engine, 46001b thrust; Warhead: 50 lb high-explosive; Guidance: lnfrared; Range 15 to 25 mi at Mach 2.5. Ceiling 79,280 ft. Soviets claim 98 percent kill rate against J-1 target drones. Deployed in field batteries, six launchers to a battery. Operational since 1954


no discernable counterpart
T-9 (KOMET I)

Surface-to-surface missile. Solid propellant. High-explosive and nuclear warhead. Range, 100 miles. Speed, 3000 mph. Reported to be operational with U.S.S.R. Army. By 1962 described as Length: 36.8 ft; Diameter: 4.26 ft, 10.9 ft fin span; Weight: 20.250 lb; Powerplant: Solid propellant 53,250 lb thrust; Warhead: 460 lb high-explosive; Guidance: None.

Scheduled to put KOMET I aboard submarines and surface ships. Range 102.5 mi at Mach 4.25. Used to test T-10 (KOMET 2) nose cone. Navy launches T-9 from submarines, missiles stored in conning tower. Also identified as CH-17. Said to be in with Red China Navy.


no discernable counterpart
T-10 Komet II

The Comet II, a medium range ballistic missile, has a solid-propellant rocket motor with thrust estimated at 99,000 lbs., and was currently [1960] in production. Since it was not possible for this missile to reach all sections of North America, it was considered to be a stop-gap weapon until development of the 1,800-mile Comet III. Launching of the Comet II, utilizing the new method, was accomplished by loading the missile into the cannister like a shell into a mortar tube. The after-end of the cannister was flooded to tilt it into a vertical position, and gyro stabilizers then maintain the cannister in a relatively steady position. By 1962 it was described as Diameter: 5.9 ft, 10.9 ft fin span; Weight - 41.350 lb; Powerplant: Solid propellant 99,000-lb thrust; Warhead: 550 lb high-explosive; Guidance: Inertial. Range 620 mi at Mach 7.5. In production in the USSR and East Germany. Reports of some 3200 KOMET 1 & 2's being produced each month.[!!!!] Used from submarines by the Red Navy.


no discernable counterpart

RT-15 MRBM



Komet III

It was thought unnecessary, in a sense, to strive for ranges greater than 1,800 miles in a submarine-launched missile since no part of the United States lies more than 1,800 mile from open seas. The Komet III should, therefore, be the Soviet equivalent to the American Polaris FBM.
RT-1 MRBM



J-1

The J-series of missiles, which resulted from great improvements over the German V-l "Buzz Bomb", was subsequently put into interim service with the Red Fleet. The J-l, now obsolete, was pulse- jet-powered and boosted by two solid-propellant rocket motors. Its speed was over 500 mph and its range in the vicinity of 375-400 miles.
10X Swallow

J-2, J-3

The J-l, now obsolete, was succeeded by the J-2 and J-3, each of which had increased range and speed over the J-l, but none of the J-series was believed to have a range of over 550 miles nor speed greater than 875 mph. In 1962 the J-3 was said to have a range 1450 mi at Mach 1.15. Used from at least 7 submarines. Also used from cruiser type vessels.
SSC-1a SHADDOCK

M-2

Service: Air Force, Army; Type: Surface-to-Air; Status: Operational; Length: 25.0 ft; Diameter: 1.6 ft, 5.3 ft fin span; Weight: 3970 lb; Booster: Solid, 93501b thrust; Sustainer: Solid, 46251b thrust; Warhead: 26.5 lb high-explosive; Guidance: Semi-active homing; Range 37.25 mi at Mach 2.3. Ceiling 68,640 ft. First seen in 1957 ln Moscow. Mounted on mobile trailer-launcher. New test version reported to reach 150,000 ft.
V-75 SA-2 GUIDELINE




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