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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Type 094 Jin-class Ballistic Missile Submarine

A new design (type 094) has been planned since the late 1980s. Possibly incorporating some Russian technology, the Type 094 was expected to be a dramatic improvement over the sole Xia class SSBN, with improved quieting and sensor systems, and a more reliable propulsion system. Other improvements in sonar, propulsion, training, and the application of quieting techniques will contribute to a significant improvement in the capabilities of China's submarine fleet.

Type 094 Jin-class Nomenclature

The collapse of the Han dynasty in A.D. 220 was followed by nearly four centuries of rule by warlords. The age of civil wars and disunity began with the era of the Three Kingdoms (Wei, Shu, and Wu, which had overlapping reigns during the period A.D. 220-80). In later times, fiction and drama greatly romanticized the reputed chivalry of this period. Unity was restored briefly in the early years of the Jin dynasty (A.D. 265-420), but the Jin could not long contain the invasions of the nomadic peoples. In A.D. 317 the Jin court was forced to flee from Luoyang and reestablished itself at Nanjing to the south. To fend off barbarian intrusion, the fortification walls built by the various warring states were connected to make a 5,000- kilometer-long great wall. What is commonly referred to as the Great Wall is actually four great walls rebuilt or extended during the Western Han, Sui, Jin, and Ming periods, rather than a single, continuous wall. At its extremities, the Great Wall reaches from northeastern Heilongjiang Province to northwestern Gansu.

The Yangtze River, some 6300 km long in total, is the largest river in China and the third in the world(the Nile and the Amazon rank the first and second). The harnessing and utilization of the Yangtze River began in the Spring-Autumn and Warring Period. Many water conservancy projects for irrigation, flood control and transportation were built through ages of efforts. The well-known Jingjiang Great Dike is a product of ages of construction beginning from Spring-Autumn and Warring Period. Its history can be divided into four periods: commenced in Spring-Autumn and Warring Period and Jin Dynasty, completed various sections in Song Dynasty, came into being as a whole in Ming Dynasty, and heightened and reinforced in modern times. The Jiangsu-Zhejiang Sea Dikes, located at the mouth of the Yangtze, is about 400 km long. Its construction began at the mouth of Qiantangjiang River in East Han Dynasty, and the later expansion in East Jin Dynasty built the dikes to present Baoshan area. The whole dikes are finally formed in Tang and Song Dynasty.

The Yellow River is the second largest river in China. It is said that it had administrators special for water management as early as in the dynasties of Xia, Shang and Zhou. At that time the management of the Yellow River had become an important matter of the state. In Jin and Yuan Dynasty, the river engineering works in the lower reaches were protected together by the army and people.

Acupuncture is one discipline within the comprehensive system of Chinese medicine and healthcare. The origins of Chinese medicine are ascribed to Huang Ti, the Yellow Emperor. Huang Ti, the third of five legendary Chinese emperors, is reported to have ruled between 2696 and 2598 B.C. The Huang Ti Nei Ching or Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine is the oldest known medical text and established the foundation for the theory and practice of all Chinese medicine. Over the centuries, the Nei Ching has undergone numerous revisions and clarifications. One of the most significant occurred during the Western Jin Dynasty (265-318 A.D.), with the publication of the first comprehensive text devoted exclusively to acupuncture and moxibustion1 for the treatment of disease and maintenance of health.

Type 094 Jin-class Design

The Type 094 is based on the same basic design as the Type 093 nuclear-powered attack submarine, utilising the same power plant. Each of the Type 094 SSBNs will mount 12 [not 16] JL-2 ballistic missiles (DF-31s) with a range of 8000 kms. When deployed, this missile will allow Chinese SSBNs to target portions of the United States for the first time from operating areas located near the Chinese coast. Equipped with the JL-2 missiles, the Type 094 SSBNs would only have to patrol just to the northeast of the Kuril Islands to hold about three-fourths of the United States at risk. The TYPE 094 SSBN, equipped with the 8,000+ km range, penetration aid-equipped JL-2 SLBM, will provide China with a modern and robust sea-based nuclear deterrent force.

On 15 October 2007 a photograph appeared on several Chinese Web sites, apparently taken from the water at a reasonably close range, that showed two of China's Jin-class ballistic-missile submarines alongside a pier at an unknown location in China. The picture, released the same day that China's Party Congress, held once every five years to choose the country's top leaders and set policy, opened in Beijing. The photograph confirms the assessment made by the US intelligence community, clearly showing the open hatches of 12 launch tubes, ending speculation that the Jin-class would carry 16 missiles.

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