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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


Type 094 Jin-class Design

The Type 094 is based on the same basic design as the Type 093 nuclear-powered attack submarine, utilising the same power plant. The Type 094 strategic nuclear submarine is actually expanding the Type 093 attack nuclear submarine, loading the Julang-2 ballistic missile and supporting the communication and situation system. As a new generation of strategic nuclear submarines, this is the same as the design concept of the first type 092 strategic nuclear submarine in China, "one type and two boats". It is to develop attack nuclear submarines and strategic nuclear submarines on a basic type, simply saying that Adding a missile bay to the base of the attacking nuclear submarine has certain practical feasibility. The purpose is to enable the 094 to form a combat force as soon as possible. The advantage of this is to maximize the versatility of the two submarines and to improve the submarine. Construction speed. The newly developed and improved equipment of the Type 092 only accounts for about 15-20% of the total number of equipment, thus reducing the difficulty, time and cost of development, which is actually caused by insufficient technical capabilities at the time

Each of the Type 094 SSBNs will mount 12 [not 16] JL-2 ballistic missiles (DF-31s) with a range of 8000 kms. When deployed, this missile will allow Chinese SSBNs to target portions of the United States for the first time from operating areas located near the Chinese coast. Equipped with the JL-2 missiles, the Type 094 SSBNs would only have to patrol just to the northeast of the Kuril Islands to hold about three-fourths of the United States at risk. The TYPE 094 SSBN, equipped with the 8,000+ km range, penetration aid-equipped JL-2 SLBM, will provide China with a modern and robust sea-based nuclear deterrent force.

The Type 094 strategic nuclear submarine adopts a drop-shaped shape and a double-shell structure. In terms of shape characteristics, it has a continuation relationship with the 092 type hull, and is still a shell rudder. The cross-shaped boat, single-axis single-blade and "turtle-back" shape are equipped with the Julang-2 missile, and the size of the ballistic missile compartment in the middle of the hull is increased. The hull structure of the Type 094 nuclear submarine was upgraded from the Type 092 nuclear submarine, which means it is not a newly designed submarine. In appearance, there are some large drainage holes between the submarine-launched ballistic missile launcher and the submarine's outer casing, and there are such drainage holes on the missile compartment. This rough structure has a gap compared to the appearance of a new generation of nuclear submarines in advanced countries such as the United States, Britain and France.

Comparing the details, the 094's podium is higher than the 092, the rear part of the podium shell and the submarine-launched missile launching tube are at a 90-degree angle, while the 092 type is about 85 degrees, in addition to the 094-type "turtle." The back is higher than the 092. There are three rows of drain holes on each side, and the three rows of drain holes at both ends have an upward curvature, which is the most obvious difference in appearance between the two types of submarines.

The "turtle back" of the Type 094 is increased, which reduces the noise performance of the submarine and is detrimental to improving the quiet performance of the submarine. The presence of the "turtle back" destroys the uniform distribution of the submarine's line shape and water pressure. In addition, there are a large number of openings on the missile bay, which easily form turbulence, which increases the fluid noise of the submarine. In addition, the "turtle back" also increased the area of the submarine, increased the resistance and frictional resistance, which is not conducive to the submarine's submarine speed. The external structural characteristics of the Type 094 nuclear submarine and the Type 093 attack nuclear submarine prove that Russia has not intervened in the design of the two.

On 15 October 2007 a photograph appeared on several Chinese Web sites, apparently taken from the water at a reasonably close range, that showed two of China's Jin-class ballistic-missile submarines alongside a pier at an unknown location in China. The picture, released the same day that China's Party Congress, held once every five years to choose the country's top leaders and set policy, opened in Beijing. The photograph confirms the assessment made by the US intelligence community, clearly showing the open hatches of 12 launch tubes, ending speculation that the Jin-class would carry 16 missiles.

The Type 094 strategic nuclear submarine has 12 missile launchers and is equipped with 12 JuLang-2 missiles. The combat capability is equivalent to the United States in terms of the number of missiles. Or the level of the Soviet Union in the late 1960s, while the active strategic nuclear submarines in the United States and Europe are usually 16-24. The Model 094 is also equipped with six 533mm torpedo tubes, carrying 12 fish-3 torpedoes or SET-65E torpedoes, and can also carry wake self-guided torpedoes and line-guided submarine torpedoes. The fish-3 torpedo is actively and passively searched. The warhead weighs 205 kilograms, has a maximum range of 15 kilometers and a speed of 40 knots.

The sonar fairing of the Type 094 strategic nuclear submarine is the same as the 092 type. The 092M is equipped with a 265A sonar system. There is a streamlined fairing on the vertical rudder of the tail of the Type 094 submarine. The line type is the application port of the sonar, so the 094 type is equipped with a new type of towed line sonar. The advantage of towed string sonar is that it breaks the limitation of the size of the hull on the size of the sonar array. The array with a length of more than 1 km after release can greatly reduce the operating frequency of the antenna, so that the submarine can capture signals in a very low frequency range. Thereby obtaining long-distance detection capability, this is also the main detection means for dealing with quiet submarines.

The habitability of the internal type 094 strategic nuclear submarine has improved significantly. In the past, the design of submarines in China and the Soviet Union, due to limited technology. Or the conventional submarine, which pays little attention to the living environment of the submarine. Whether it is a living space or a work cabin, the boat is narrow and simple compared with the submarines in the western countries. This will give the nuclear submarine crew who have long-term oceangoing combat missions. Causes greater ideological and mental stress. In this type of submarine, Chinese designers have drawn on the experience of Western humanized submarine design, designed and reserved a considerable space for living and entertainment.

In addition, due to the large-scale improvement of command automation, informationization and electronicization of new equipment, various weapons and equipment have been greatly reduced in size while the performance of the equipment has been reduced, and the staffing has been reduced accordingly, so it also saves a lot of space for the submarine. It is conducive to the designer to calmly set the layout for the entire submarine. The per capita living area on the Type 094 is increased from 2 square meters per person on the Type 092 to 6 square meters per person.

The Type 094 is equipped with a towed line that gives it the ability to have a backward alert, which is very important for strategic missile submarines. The early strategic missile nuclear submarine has only a comprehensive array of boats and cannot detect the rear area of the submarine. This can only maintain the warning of the rear through untimely steering to prevent the enemy submarine from trailing, but this may expose its position. After using the towed line, the submarine not only improves the remote detection capability, but also provides the submarine with a warning immediately behind it. It allows the Type 094 to detect the presence or absence of an attacking nuclear submarine as soon as possible to track and monitor itself. In addition, the two sides can be quickly separated from the distance or summoned to cover the forces for expulsion, thus effectively enhancing the concealment of the strategic nuclear submarine.

Type 094 is equipped with a comprehensive acoustic raft, H/SQC-207 side line array and towed line. The sonar, full range, can cover the 360-degree area around the submarine, greatly improving the underwater sensing ability of the nuclear submarine. It is the first submarine of the Chinese Navy with omnidirectional detection capability. The scope of the Chinese Navy’s operations is mostly in the area of the first island chain. If the Type 094 strategic nuclear submarine goes out of the ocean to perform strategic patrol duty tasks, it may not be able to obtain sufficient protection from China’s air and sea combat system. In this case, the nuclear submarines are more It is necessary to rely on its own underwater sound system to obtain the surrounding situation, so the advanced and complete underwater sound system is obviously necessary.

The Type 094 strategic nuclear submarine is equipped with China's new generation submarine combat command system, which uses a data bus to carry out the shipborne detection system, navigation, and military. The control and control systems are organically coupled to achieve integrated display and control, improving the information acquisition and processing capabilities of the submarine. In terms of navigation system, the Type 094 strategic nuclear submarine adopts integrated navigation system including inertial navigation plus astronomical starlight and satellite navigation to improve the navigation and positioning accuracy of the submarine. In addition, it also adopts a new generation of submarine automatic control system to achieve concentration. Control and centralized display, the system function and automation level have reached a high level, so that the submarine has the ability of automatic depth, heading maintenance, automatic control, etc., which improves the stability, maneuverability and concealment of the submarine and can provide safety for missile launch. A reliable environment helps to reduce the adverse effects of submarine movement on the initial state of the missile.

The Type 094 is also equipped with the “Deep Sea Blue Laser Information Transmission System”. The system has reached the stage of use in the early 21st century. However, due to the lack of pressurized water reactor technology, the 093 and 094 projects have been delayed, and the software has been upgraded. Has been completed. The "deep sea blue laser information transmission system" will enable nuclear submarines to receive ultra-long-wave signals within tens of meters without being periodically floating up, and can expect to be hundreds of meters underwater. The connection between the highest command system and the nuclear submarine has been greatly enhanced, and the concealment of the nuclear submarine has been enhanced.

Compared with the two heavy industries of hydrodynamics and nuclear power, China's progress in the field of electronic information is obviously larger, so the 094-type strategic nuclear submarine is in submarine combat command, underwater sound, fire control, navigation and other systems. The equipment has made great progress, and the tactical technical indicators of the submarine have been greatly improved, thus enhancing the comprehensive combat capability of the submarine and making up for some shortcomings to some extent.

The Type 094 strategic nuclear submarine is considered to have a quiet performance close to that of the Russian 667BDR strategic nuclear submarine (NATO called Delta III). The further reduction in navigation noise is mainly due to the extensive use of new design noise reduction measures. Such as improved rubber composite sound-absorbing tile (increased thickness and density of internal inert gas pores), drop-type hydraulic damping transmission, internal sound insulation design of transmission cabin, movable noise source surface coating plastic technology, main Drive shaft hole damping filling material technology, high-precision propeller processed by new multi-axis cutting machine, submarine drainage hole invisible design (ie, main drainage hole can be opened and closed) and pipeline vibration isolation and sound absorption.

For the first time, the 094 type adopts the floating damper damping technology. The "floating damper" which is different from the passive damping of the earlier Chinese boats is a highly automated digital active vibration damping technology. The US Navy began researching the technology in the 1960s and achieved results in the 1980s and applied it to its nuclear submarines, reducing noise by 15 to 20 decibels. The study of the Soviet technology began in the 1970s with a noise reduction of about 30 decibels. China matured in the 1990s and has been used in modern retrofit projects for Types 091 and 092. The Type 094 is expected to maintain the same level of underwater silence as the Type 093, presumably below the level of 120 decibels. This level of silence is still a gap compared to the Ohio level of 100 decibels, but it is more than a Los Angeles-level attack. The nuclear submarine's 120 decibels is better. The high noise means that the 094 can only use lower speeds to reduce noise, which increases the time required for the submarine to patrol the sea and reduces the time the submarine is on duty in the patrol waters.

The Type 094 strategic nuclear submarine was once considered to be equipped with the world's advanced fourth-generation new nuclear reactor, high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The nuclear fuel is completely burned completely, leaving no nuclear waste, safe and environmentally friendly, and has the same length of life as a submarine. It does not require replacement of new nuclear fuel throughout its service. The new nuclear reactor has high power and high thermal efficiency, which can make the nuclear submarine obtain high surface and underwater speed. The maximum underwater speed can reach 45 knots, but the navigation noise is small compared with the nuclear submarine of other nuclear reactors at the same speed. many.

In fact, the delay of the Type 093 and Type 094 projects is mainly due to the "natural circulation function" technology of the pressurized water reactor, which proved from the side that the traditional pressurized water reactor still used on the Type 094, Based on the 092 nuclear reactor, the power performance has not been improved by leaps and bounds. The turbine engine and power system are equipped with single-axis drive. The Type 094 was originally planned to use a pump-jet propulsion system that not only prevents the air bubbles generated by the propeller, but also shields the noise. The US -class Virginia attack nuclear submarine and the Seawolf-class attack nuclear submarine, the French triumph-class strategic nuclear submarine , the British avant-garde Strategic nuclear submarines use pump-jet propulsion systems. In the mid-1990s, China had already done a lot of hydrodynamic experiments on this system, and carried out 1/4 and 1/2 model experiments. Later, due to the slow progress of China's development, it has not yet entered the practical stage, so Types 093 and 094 The first batch will still use a 7-blade large skewed propeller made of shock absorbing alloy.



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