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Ukrainian Space Companies

Enterprises of the space industry of Ukraine in January-March increased production in comparison with the same period in 2017 by 12.7%, to UAH 884.4 million, the press service of the State Space Agency of Ukraine reported 04 June 2018. The volume of sales in the first quarter increased by 12.3%, to UAH 892 million. The total volume of gross output for the reporting period of 2018 exceeded UAH 1.462 billion.

According to the State Space Agency of Ukraine, the volume of the rocket and space industry’s gross output in the first quarter of 2018 rose by 21.2% compared to the same period in 2017, to UAH 52.2 million. Work under the state order was conducted by two enterprises: Pavlohrad Chemical Plant and Ukrkosmos. The share of exports in the total volume of sales for the reporting period was 32%, while in the total volume of exports some 84.7% to the EU, the United States and other countries. According to the data provided, seven enterprises posted profit in the first quarter. In particular the net profit of state enterprise Pavlohrad Chemical Plant amounted to UAH 33.66 million, that of PJSC Hartron some UAH 630,000, state enterprise Pivdenmash some UAH 100,000, Dniprovsky Design Institute some UAH 100,000, and Scientific and Research Technological Institute of Instrument Making some UAH 100,000.

Enterprises of the Ukrainian space industry exported about 50% of manufactured products and services in 2017, the press service of the State Space Agency of Ukraine (SSAU) reported 11 April 2018. According to a report posted on the website of the agency, in the total volume of sales of the industry’s goods and services worth UAH 4.7 billion, the share of exports amounted to 49.3%, or 8.1% more than in 2016. According to the press service, the share of exports to the U.S., EU countries and other countries amounted to 92.9%, or UAH 2.11 billion, in total exports.

Export growth for the reporting period was demonstrated by export-oriented enterprises, in particular, Arsenal Special Device Production State Enterprise – 57.4%, Pavlohrad Chemical Plant – 139.7%, Pivdenne Design Bureau – 19.6%, and PJSC Hartron – 63%. According to the agency, enterprises operating in the space industry increased production by 26.3% in 2017 year-over-year, to UAH 4.6 billion. Gross production grew by 22% and exceeded UAH 5.49 billion. The growth of sales at the end of the year amounted to 24%.

SSAU currently manages 26 enterprises and organizations of the space industry. The state budget for 2017 envisages UAH 2.91 billion for financing the space industry, or 14.2% less than in 2016. In the total amount of financing, 61.5% of the funds from the state budget’s general fund are envisaged for the fulfillment of debt obligations on previously attracted loans for the implementation of international industry projects.

Pivdenne (Yuznoye) Design Bureau (Dnipro), Hartron (Kharkiv), Enterprise of Special Engineering Arsenal (Kyiv), Kommunar Production Association (Kharkiv), Kyivprylad Production Association (Kyiv) and Instrument-Making Research Technological Institute (Kharkiv) saw profit. The space agency said that since early 2017 with the participation of enterprises of the Ukrainian space industry, seven launches have been carried out within international cooperation: the launch of the U.S. Antares launch vehicle, which provides commercial flights to deliver cargoes to ISS under a contract with NASA (Ukraine produced the first stage of the LV), three launches of the European Vega LV with the Ukrainian engine of the fourth stage involved in the ESA programs, as well as three launches of the Russian Soyuz-FG LV with the Ukrainians control system involved in the international programs.

Under the former system, Ukraine was involved heavily in the Soviet Union’s missile and space programs, providing spacecraft and launch vehicle design and production. Today, Ukraine is among the few countries in the world that possesses a complete space rocket production complex. However, Ukraine does not have its own space launch facility, so all launches using Ukrainian rockets take place from facilities in Kazakhstan, Russia, or the Sea Launch platform in the Pacific Ocean. Ukraine apparently has no plans to develop a domestic space launch facility. Kiev retains the potential to manufacture ballistic missiles. However, there appeared to be little likelihood that Ukraine would resume long range ballistic missile development or deploy such weapons itself. Ukraine has retained its right to build and deploy short-range, nuclear-capable missiles, should its security be threatened.

Five-year National Space Programs, implemented by the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU), form the basis of Ukraine’s space initiative. NSAU encompasses 30 enterprises, scientific research institutes, and design offices, Ukraine’s central executive authorities, and the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU).

Independent Ukraine’s first space program operated from 1994–97, with its main purpose to preserve “the scientific and production potential in the space industry for the benefit [of the] national economy and [the] security of the country as well as to facilitate Ukraine entering international space services markets.” The goals of the second Ukraine space program (1998–2002) were to form a domestic market for space services; to enter the international space market with domestically produced products and services, including rocket complexes and space vehicles, information from space, and space system components; and to integrate Ukraine’s space program into the international space community.

The main development and production organizations involved in Ukraine’s space program are the Yuzhnoye (Pivdenne) Design Bureau and the Yuzmash (Pivdenmash) Production Association located in Dnepropetrovsk. During the Soviet period, both these organizations were responsible for the design and production of many Soviet missiles, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Ukraine’s main space programs use the launch vehicles and engines produced at Yuzhnoye. Yuzhnoye also has instrument and satellite design bureaus, and it designs and builds the Cyclone rockets. The fourth generation of Cyclone rockets features a highaccuracy GPS navigational system and a payload capability of 12,000 pounds for an equatorial orbit at 300 miles. The Yuzhnoye Design Office also produced Zenit, a world-renowned, environmentally safe rocket system with fully automated processes for takeoff and super-precise space injection. The Energy–Buran universal space system (the Soviet/Russian space shuttle) used the first stage of Zenit as a side accelerator.

Russia is Ukraine’s most important foreign partner in the space sector. The two countries have discussed the feasibility of using Ukrainian technology in a Russian research project to explore the moon and Mars. They have discussed the possibility of joint construction of the ground infrastructure for a global satellite navigation system covering Ukraine, Russia, and parts of Europe for the 2012 Ukraine European Football Championship and the 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Russia. Ukraine and Russia also have decided to resume regular meetings between specialists at the two countries’ aeronautics and space departments and academies of science.

Although no ballistic missiles are currently in production, Ukrainian facilities continue to produce SLVs and their components. Ukraine possesses Tsiklon and Zenit rocket types and reportedly continues to work on new variants. In addition, Ukrainian firms are working on a project to convert retired SS–18 ICBMs into Dnepr SLVs for use in commercial space launches from Russia. Ukraine hopes to preserve much of its rocket industry, which it regards as the most important high-tech sector of its economy, but because of the acute crisis of its economy, the country’s ability to provide necessary funding is limited.



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