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Manipur Insurgency

Opposition Groups

  • HPC Hmar People's Convention
    (Also known as HRF - Hmar Revolutionary Front)
  • KNF Kuki National Front
  • NSCN (I-M) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (I-M)
  • PLA Peoples' Liberation Army
  • PREPAK People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak
  • UNLF United National Liberation Front

  • CKRF Chin Kuki Revolutionary Front
  • HPC(D) Hmar People's Convention (Democratic)
  • IKL Iripak Kanba Lup
  • INF Islamic National Front
  • IPRA Indigenous People's Revolutionary Alliance
  • IRF Islamic Revolutionary Front
  • KCP Kangleipak Communist Party
  • KDF Kuki Defence Force
  • KIA Kuki Independent Army
  • KIF Kuki International Force
  • KKK Kangleipak Kanba Kanglup
  • KLF Kuki Liberation Front
  • KLO Kangleipak Liberation Organisation
  • KNA Kuki National Army
  • KNF(P) Kuki National Front (?)
  • KNV Kuki National Volunteers
  • KRF Kuki Revolutionary Front
  • KRPC Kom Rem People's Convention
  • KSF Kuki Security Force
  • KYKL(O) Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (Oken)
  • KYKL(T) Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (Toijamba)
  • MLTA Manipur Liberation Tiger Army
  • MPA Manipur People's Army
  • MPLF Manipur People's Liberation Front
    (Unified platform of UNLF, PLA and PREPAK)
  • PRA People's Republican Army
  • PULF People's United Liberation Front
  • RPF Revolutionary People's Front
  • UKLF United Kuki Liberation Front
  • ZRA Zomi Revolutionary Army
  • ZRV Zomi Revolutionary Volunteers
Manipur State continued to be the most disturbed State in North East region. Majority of the violence has been perpetrated by Valley based groups as they accounted for approximately 55% of the violence in Manipur. Inter-tribal rivalry and insider-outsider divide was prominently visible during 2016. Demand of implementation of Inner Line Permit and its opposition were the main factors for protests in Manipur. Politics of Blockades and Bandhs continued to prevail and led to increasing fissures amongst the three major communities namely; Meiteis, Nagas and Kukis. The proposal by Manipur Government to create new districts led to the economic blockade spearheaded by United Naga Council since November 1, 2016. The announcement regarding creation of seven new districts in Manipur on December 8, 2016 witnessed further intensification of the economic blockade and a fillip to violent activities in the region. The announcement also altered the existing ethnic dynamics and led to allignment of Meiteis and Kukis against Nagas. This ethnic polarisation further intensified due to Assembly Elections in the state in March 2017. The state of Manipur, stretching along the border with Burma (Myanmar), centres on a vast lowland area watered by the lake system south of its capital Imphal. This almost forgotten country is home to the Meiteis, Nagas, Kukis and other small ethnic groups. Manipur was not a Part of India. It was forcibly annexed by India. In 21 September 1949 the king of Manipur was forced to sign the Marger Agreement. Majority people of Manipur every year protest against this so-called merger agreement. The revolutionary parties of Manipur like UNLF, RPF are engaged now in armed national liberation struggle to liberate Manipur from Indian colonial occupation. They want to reestablish Manipur as an Independent country.

Manipur's history can be traced back to the foundation of Imphal in the first century AD. Despite periodic invasions from Burma, it has also had long periods of independent and stable government. Manipur came under British rule in 1891 as a result of the defeat in the Battle of Khongjom. During World War II, most of Manipur was occupied by the Japanese, who used it as a base from where to strike towards the Assam Valley. Manipur became a full-fledged Indian state within the union in 1972. Since then it has been subjected to waves of violent unrest, initially as a result of self-rule campaigns and more recently through a brutal war between Kukis and Nagas; inter-communal hostilities came to a head in 1993, when several villages were destroyed and many innocent people brutally slaughtered. Since then, disturbances have been on the increase, with curfews in force in Imphal and elsewhere; at the time of writing, tourists were being advised to stay away, and were not allowed to spend the night anywhere outside the capital.

Insurgency in the valley is contained substantially. Insurgent groups such as UNLF, KYKL, PLA etc are active in valley area of Manipur. Their main demand is independence from India. These groups have training camps inside Myanmar from where supply of weapons & Ammunitions also takes place due to open border with Manipur. These groups exert their influence through civil society organizations in valley districts.

NSCN (IM) is the dominant insurgent group active in Naga districts of Manipur.NSCN(IM) signed ceasefire with Govt of India in the year 2000 and since then is holding talks with Indian govt for demand for greater Nagalim including Naga districts of Manipur. NSCN(IM) has substantial hold over social, political life of Naga civil society and it plays significant role in elections.

As many as 19 hill based Kuki UG under the banner of KNO (Kuki National Organisation) and UPF (United Peoples Front) are present in Kuki dominated districts like Kangpokpi, Churachandpur and some parts of Chandel district. They have signed Suspension of Operations (SOO) agreement with Govt of India and Govt of Manipur and have 20 designated camps. During election these groups may intimidate voters.

The presence of more than 20 Insurgency groups has weakened the hold of of the state. Intercommunity conflicts have also led to law & order problems, especially frequent Bundhs & Blockades. Issue of imposition of Inner Line Permit and demand for greater Nagalim have led to Law & Order problems in recent past.

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