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Burma Insurgency

  • Myanmar Military Guide
  • Burma Insurgency
  • Burma Insurgency - Background
  • 1989 - Search for Peace
  • 2009 - Border Guard Force (BGF)
  • 2015 - Nationwide Cease-fire Accord
  • References

    Nationwide Cease-fire Accord (NCA)

  • All Burma Students Democratic Front
  • Arakan Liberation Party
  • Chin National Front
  • Democratic Karen Benevolent Army (DKBA)
  • Karen National Union (KNU)
  • Karen National Liberation Army Peace Council
  • Lahu Democratic Union
  • New Mon State Party
  • Pa-O National Liberation Organization
  • Restoration Council of Shan State
  • FPNCC [Federal Political Negotiation and Consultative Committee]

  • Arakan Army (AA)
  • Kachin Independence Army
  • Karenni National Progressive Party
  • Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA) (Kokang group)
  • National Democratic Alliance Army (Mongla group)
  • Shan State Progressive Party/Shan State Army-North
  • Taang National Liberation Army
  • United Wa State Army (UWSA)
  • Other Insurgent Organizations

  • Arakan National Organization
  • Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA)
  • Brotherhood Alliance
  • Burmese Communist Party [BCP]
  • Chin National Army
  • Eastern Shan State Army (ESSA)
  • God's Army
  • Kachin Defense Army (KDA)
  • Karen National Defense Organization (KNDO)
  • Mong Tai Army (MTA)
  • Naga National Council
  • National United Front of Arakan (NUFA)
  • Northern Alliance Myanmar
  • Rohingya Solidarity Organization
  • Shan United Army (SUA)
  • Tai-land Revolutionary Army (TRA)
  • Vigorous Burmese Student Warriors
  • Myanmars military accepted the concept of federalism on 21 August 2020 after decades of resistance to the idea, signing an agreement on the final day of government-sponsored peace talks to set the stage for building a federal democratic union after 2020. The shift reverses 70 years of military rejection of a federal union for the complex multi-ethnic nation, but analysts said the latest agreement was thin on concrete achievements. The hard work lies ahead as the national army continues to fight wars in far-flung states dominated by ethnic minority groups, they said.

    The fourth round of the Union Peace Conference included 230 representatives from the government, the military, political parties, and the 10 ethnic armed organizations that have signed the governments nationwide cease-fire agreement (NCA). Seven rebel forces, including the largest and most powerful ones, stayed away. Myanmar military spokesman Brigadier General Zaw Min Tun of military information committee later told reporters that rebel groups that had not signed the NCA must lay down their arms and sign the cease-fire pact so the peace process can move forward. The military believes that any peace negotiations without a cease-fire could still be problematic, he said.

    The representatives at the Union Peace Conference, a series of meetings aimed at ending various ethnic insurgencies that have ravaged Myanmar since its founding in 1948, agreed on Union Accord Part III, the blueprint for implementing a process for creating a democratic federal union process. First inked at the 2016 round of the Union Peace Conference, the accord comprises a framework agreement for implementing the NCA, steps for implementing the peace process after 2020, and basic principles for establishing a democratic federal union.

    Myanmars military overthrew the democratically elected NLD government on 01 February 2021, claiming the party had stolen the countrys November 2020 ballot through voter fraud. Amid nationwide turmoil, the military has stepped up offensives in remote parts of the country, triggering fierce battles with local Peoples Defense Force (PDF) militias and some of the dozens of ethnic armies that control large swathes of territory along Myanmars periphery. Branches of the Peoples Defense Force militia from a dozen different regions in Myanmar formed an alliance to collectively take on the countrys junta, despite each group facing respective offensives since the military seized power seven months ago, members said 01 September 2021. The PDF groups, which are mostly based in embattled Sagaing region and Chin state, but are also located in of Mandalay and Magway regions, as well as Kachin and other ethnic states, announced on Aug. 28 that they had allied to bolster their resistance to the military.

    They told RFAs Myanmar Service they would welcome additional militias into the fold. It means a stronger united force through which each group can help the others with whatever is needed, said a member of the Nhalone-hla Hardcores, a group based in the seat of Mandalays Myingyan township. Right now, we are 12 in a unified group. If other groups want to join us, our leaders will consult with them and decide whether to accept them or not.

    The alliance of a dozen PDF groups announced over the weekend expands on one formed by the Mindat PDF, which had been engaged in frequent clashes with the junta forces, the Kanpetlet Defense Force (KDF), the Chin National League comprised of the Falam, Kalay and Kabaw PDFs and the Zomi Federal Union comprised of the Tedim and Tunzan PDFs formed on 24 August 2021.

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    Page last modified: 26-10-2021 13:52:12 ZULU