Yak-1M / Yak-3
In February 1943, the construction of Yak-1M was a further development of the Yak-1, from which it differed mainly lower weight and smaller wing area. Flight data of the machine noticeably improved top speed at an altitude of 4430 meters has increased to 633 km / h, a climb of 5000 m at a takeoff weight of 2655 kg was reduced to 4.1 minutes. In September 1943, it was prepared by an improved version of the Yak-1M "Understudy". This aircraft fabric covering the rear fuselage was replaced with plywood 2 mm thick, the cooling system improved the water and oil, applied topless antenna ring sight with front sight was changed to collimator improved the book and set a new screw.
Test pilots were satisfied with the new fighter. In their review, saying that "the Yak-1M has excellent horizontal and especially vertical maneuverability. Maximum speed is significantly increased in comparison with serial Yak. In the presence of these high flying aircraft was easy to fly and does not require a higher aircrew training."
Pilot flying by Air Force Major General Hero of the Soviet Union Pyotr Stefanovsky wrote: "Given the excellent flight characteristics of the aircraft, well-armed, and a great convenience for pilots, it is reasonable to recommend as soon as possible to implement this instance into production to replace the Yak-1 and Yak-7, must leave only Yak-9 for installation of the engine in the future M-107A ".
So, the fighter received a start in life, and along with a new name - the Yak-3. The first production aircraft was sent to the 91 th Fighter Aviation Regiment of the 2nd Air Army, which in June 1944 he took part in offensive operations in Lviv. More than 40% of the flight crews of the regiment were young pilots who have never participated in fighting T Nevertheless, a month and a half they have successfully completed 430 sorties carried out five air group fights, destroying 23 enemy aircraft. Its losses amounted to two Yak-3. Conclusions of the pilots was unequivocal: "At altitudes up to 5000 m (above the fighting was conducted) Yak-3 is superior and Me-109 and PV-190 Yak-3 easy to enemy fighters catches up on the vertical ascending and descending maneuver."
Especially memorable for pilots was the fight July 16, 1944, which showed that the Yak-3 can successfully fight the numerically superior enemy battle began ten Yak-3 to eight Me-109 and four FB-190 with increased strength on our side to 18 and up to 24 aircraft from the enemy was finally shot down 15 enemy fighters and only one Yak-3.
The first two hundred serial Yak-3 were armed with a gun and one ShVAK synchronous machine gun UB and then the second set was a simultaneous UB & B deficiencies aircraft pilots noticed a small amount of fuel, which made ??ineffective because of the low free hunting sortie duration. Therefore, the Yak-3 was used mostly on-call ground stations. Another drawback to the upper wing skin. There were even recorded it on the aircraft from the dive at maximum speed. However, there were cases that in spite of such damage fighters made ??a normal landing. Knowing the hazards of the machine, the pilots tried not to go to illegal regimes, and the easy maneuverability Yak-3 has quickly gained popularity.
The excellent performance of the machine data, the numerous enemy planes, defeated in battle on this fighter and a high emotional lift, characteristic of the final period of the war contributed to the fact that in the minds of many pilots of the Yak-3 fighter became a symbol of Soviet harbinger of victory.
The thoughts of those who flew and fought in the Yak-3, perhaps most vividly expressed by Major General Aviation Hero of the Soviet Union, commander of the 303rd Air Division George Nefedovich Zakharov: "Before receiving part 303 th Division of aircraft Yak-3 I flew all fighters from I-2bis, including foreign ones, as well as the Yak-1, Yak-7B, Yak-9 (all versions). Recently flown on an airplane La 5FY considering it well. With the arrival of the Yak-3 carried out a number of operations on it, and concluded that there is a similar fighter competition. The operation of the Yak-3 is simple and accessible tehsostavu resistant during takeoff and landing, in pilotage is available to any pilot that is absolutely impossible for the aircraft La-5FN. Flyers 18th Guards Fighter Regiment, and a separate "Normandy" Yak-3 was mastered after a 3-5 hour flight. On the Yak-3, I held a number of teaching and dogfights with Yak-9 and La-5 and always won. We had to meet on the battlefield with the Me-109 and Yak-3 showed absolute superiority."
Curiously, General Zakharov after the war for a long time did not part with his Yak-3. And in the 50 years the aircraft was "at least where, regularly squeezing his seven hundred kilometers per hour in a dive."
Undoubtedly, the Yak-3 - one of the most advanced Soviet fighters of the Great Patriotic War. The design of the fighter was simple and rational basis fuselage was a steel tube truss. In order to reduce the weight of the fuselage, the engine mount was designed integrally. In the rest frame of the fuselage as well as his theoretical contours are not different from the Yak-1, Yak-7 and Yak-9. The bow of the fuselage skin were easily removable duralumin hoods, tail section is sheathed with plywood. Wing Yak-3 one-piece two-spar. Profile of the wing - the "standard Yakauleuski╗ Clark YH with a relative thickness of 14% at the root, and 7% at the end of the wing. For comparison, Nayak-1, Yak-7, Yak-9 at the root of 15% and 8% at the end. The wing had a metal frame, spars, ribs and plywood paneling. As the Yak-9-covered plywood glued to the special lining, riveted to the metal frame with rivets. Experience has shown that the combat use of such a connection is not strong enough.
After the war for the Yak-3 was made ??from duralumin wing skin but commercially the aircraft is not built. However, the metal wing Yak-3 was soon found application at the training Yak-11 and Yak-15 jet. Similarly, these aircraft were replaced with metal, wooden keel and stabilizer Yak-3. All fighters had Yakovlev propellers used for profile RAF-30.
The power plant consisted of fighter engine VC-105PF2 capacity of 1240 liters. With a propeller pitch automatically changes VISH-105SV-01. Fuel tanks, like all fighters Yakovlev, housed in a wing of their total volume is 370 liters. The radiator was installed behind the cockpit. Feature installation radiator hoses on the Yak-3 was the fact that he was deeply "drowned" in the fuselage, and a channel for supplying air to the radiator dramatically expanded. This reduced the velocity of the air blowing radiator. As a result, cooling performance was increased, and the aerodynamic drag of the radiator, as well as its outer cowl substantially reduced. The same principle was used when linking oil cooler. Armament Yak-3 consisted of motor-gun ShVAK two synchronized machine guns UB. In order to ease the limit on the Yak-3 was set to the minimum necessary set of on-board equipment, which allowed to fight day in simple meteusloviyah. Mandatory piece of equipment was a radio station provides two-way radio.
On all Yakovlev fighters carried pneumatic system qirh landing gear, landing flaps, NS control brakes. Compared to hydraulic systems used for these purposes on the fighters Lavochkin or electrical system of American fighters, pneumatics has been less robust mechanics much trouble. But the weight savings amounted to tens of kilograms.
With the advent of the Yak-3 the USSR launched mass production of fighter planes vastly superior enemy, won the undivided domination in the air, and outcome of the war was already a foregone conclusion.
|Year of adopting||1944|
|Wing area, m2||14.85|
|- Empty aircraft||2123|
|- Normal take-off||2692|
|engine type||VC-1 AP 105PF2|
|Power, hp||1 x 1240|
|The maximum speed, km / h|
|- Near ground||567|
|- on high||646|
|Practical range, km||648|
|Rate of climb, m / min||1111|
|Service ceiling, m||10400|
|Armament||20-mm gun ShVAK 2 12.7-mm machine gun UBS|
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