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Yak-1 (Krasavyets)

The Yak-1 [seemingly no Western code name] was the first and one of the main fighters of "Yak", which became the base for subsequent types and modifications. The Yak1 was nicknamed Krasavyets (Beauty). The Yakovlev Yak-1 - and its related Yak-3, Yak-7 and Yak-9 brethren - are an oft-forgotten breed when comparing the best piston-engined fighters of World War 2, though more than 36,000 aircraft were built in all. The type initially appeared as the Alexander Yakovlev-inspired Ya-26.

By appointment of the Yak-1 was a single front-line fighter, and the scheme was cantilever (ie without struts and braces) monoplane with low-wing and retractable landing gear in flight usual scheme. Construction was mixed, fuselage and engine mount - shaped, welded pipes and hromansilevyh of representing a whole. The front part of the fuselage forms the engine hood. The rear part of the fuselage is covered with canvas sides and top and bottom covered gargrot plywood. Three-section closed cockpit Plexiglas lantern. At the rear of the cabin installed bronespinka 8 mm thick.

The wing was wooden, one-piece with the operating plywood sheathing thickness of 5 to 2.5 mm. VMG Yak-1 consisted of a 12-cylinder liquid-cooled engine M-105P capacity of 1050 liters at an altitude of 4000 m and a metal three-blade propeller of variable pitch in flight VISH-61P diameter of 3.0 m. hub fairing closed-cook. Small arms first serial Yak-1 consisted of one motor ShVAK cannon and two machine guns synchronized ShKAS. Before the Battle of Stalingrad Yak-1, except for small arms had six missiles RS-82 caliber 82 mm and up to 200 kg bombs on the outside of the suspension.

To reduce the development time of the Yak-1 before it was launched into mass production before the state testing of prototypes. A number of major defects did not change the overall appreciation of the aircraft.

During serial production of most of the most serious shortcomings of the Yak-1 was eliminated in its design. There were numerous changes, such as a more powerful engine with M-105PF-105SV propellers instead of two machine guns mounted ShKAS one 12.7 mm machine gun synchronous UBS, to improve visibility dropped back gargrot the fuselage behind the cockpit, significantly improved the aerodynamics of the aircraft, emergency release mechanism mounted movable middle part of the lamp.

The aircraft had a high flying and fighting qualities, was easy to operate and available to pilots of average and even below the average qualification of wartime. He forgave blunders inexperienced pilots pilot technique.

Yak-1 participated in the fighting from the first to the last days of the war. It showed itself as a great fighter at low and medium altitudes, capable of out-manuvering any opponent, showing good stability in all conditions of flight and outstanding controllability at high angles of attack. By the autumn of 1942 the Yak-1 was the most prevalent Soviet fighter, which flew with a third of the Soviet Air Force fighter regiment,s and, by all accounts, was the most successful fighters of the "new generation" (Yak-1 and LaGG-Z MiG B). Yak-1 was enjoyed flying and technical personnel combat units wide popularity and love.

Many units and armed with Yak-1, among the first to have received the high title of the Guard. Haprimer 220 IAD (Fighter Air Division) 16VA (Air Force) (commander - Colonel A.V.Utin) materiel which was 100% of the Yak-1 on October 31, 1942, at the height of the Battle of Stalingrad tion, has been transformed in the 1st Guards IBP. Many pilots, who later became Heroes of the Soviet Union, won many brilliant victories and have made outstanding feats of the Yak-1.

The high scoring fighter pilot during the defense of Moscow in 1941, was the squadron commander Captain K.H.Titenkov 11 IAP. For two and a half months on the Yak-1, he made 172 sorties and destroyed 6 enemy aircraft. The first raid Nazi aircraft on Moscow July 22, 1941 K.H.Titenkov night knocked flagship bomber He-111 with the colonel, in which secret documents were important. K.H.Titenkov died October 10, 1941 by the Decree of October 28, 1941, he was posthumously awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.

Three times Hero of the Soviet Union AI Pokryshkin received the first star of Hero of the air battles in the Kuban on the Yak-1. Ha Yak-1, successfully fought a famous female 586 IAP, commanded T.Kazarinovoy. Carrying out a responsible task of covering attacks by enemy aircraft critical industrial facilities Regiment pilots shot down 38 enemy planes in this regiment fought the famous pilots O.Yamschikova, V.Lomako, V.Homyakova. Haibolee productive aviator fighter L.Litvak, served on a par with men in the 73 Guards. IAP also flew on the Yak-1. She shot down 14 enemy aircraft.

Of the three fighters adopted in 1940, the Yak-1 was the one with the greatest "longevity." THe MiG was taken out of production in December 1941, LaGG-Z - at the beginning of 1942 (small-scale production at one plant remained until the fall of 1943). The Yak-1, launched in the first series, produced for nearly four years - from September 1940 to July 1944 the Yak-1 was produced in various versions, including the winter version; with missile and bomber weapons; lite; with improved aerodynamics; with improved visibility, armor and weaponry; with equipment for night flying in the air defense system, etc. In contrast to the Yak-7, Yak-9 and Yak-W modified Yak-1 did not have approved the index. Yak-1 under the name I-26 was originally launched in the so-called "small", "zero" or "military unit" series at the Moscow plant N301. This series of 11 aircraft intended for military trials, as well as for display on the regular air parade. The last goal was important in an environment of impending war.

The decision to launch the Yak-1 into production at the plant N301 was taken April 27, 1940, when the first prototype I-26-1, factory tested essentially has not yet been done any full flight, and when there were identify all defects, and identified improvements, required to run a series of aircraft.

In March-April 1940 the OKB transferred to the plant N301 drawings of I-26 and to assist in establishing a mass production seconded a team of qualified professionals, headed by lead engineer K.V.Sinelschikovym. For the development of serial production Yak-1 plant was set period of 3-4 months.

Not surprisingly, honor troop series was built in an atmosphere of haste, without the necessary equipment, and sufficiently robust technology, which, naturally, could not but affect the quality of manufactured aircraft. The first production Yak-1 were generally similar to the I-26-1 (except weapons), built according to the drawings of the aircraft and, therefore, had with him the same design defects and, in addition, a significant number of manufacturing defects associated with the development of production. Ha aircraft no gasoline gauge, generator, radio. Flight mass production aircraft was 2844 kg.

The assembly of the first aircraft ended March 22, 1940 The remaining 10 aircraft released before June 1940 The first production aircraft left with insufficient strength. After the first flight around June 7, 1940 it was taken to a shop where socks wing had been cut and replaced with new reinforced. The same is done on the other machines. Lapping the military made a series of October 1940 all 11 aircraft were military tests at Kubinka airfield near Moscow in the 11th IAP in October-November 1940 by order of the State Air Force on September 20, 1940.

Military trials were completed quickly, before the first snow. Yak-1 passed combat tests satisfactorily and was recommended for serial construction. At the same time it was noted that nedovedennost structure (chassis, tires, etc..), VMG (overheating oil climb etc.), As well as lack of necessary special equipment (radio, night-landing facilities, generator, gasoline gauge, etc.) Reduce flight, operational and fighting qualities Yak-1. In this regard, before HKAP raised the question of the need to eliminate all identified defects.

On November 7, 1940 Five Yak-1, led by commander Colonel G.A.Kogrushevym 11 IAP participated in de air parameters and impressed.

The value of the military series of Yak-1 high. It allowed serial factory close touch with him for a new plane and in a first approximation work necessary for its manufacture of tooling and technology. It is allowed to introduce the flight and technical staff of one of the front parts to the design and operation of a new aircraft for the Air Force and in general to appreciate it.

Military trials of the Yak-1 showed that, despite the structural and manufacturing flaws, the aircraft had a high flight tactical qualities to successfully carry out combat missions.

The all serial Yak-1, starting with the first aircraft of the first series, it was necessary to eliminate ten major defects. This work had to carry out the production plant with the participation and under the leadership of EDO. The planes fourth and subsequent series, not counting the defects weapons should eliminate 53 of the 93 defects. This work had to perform their own production plants. Yak-1 was put into mass production by government regulations on May 4, 1940 - at the Leningrad plant N47, on May 16, 1940 - at the Moscow plant and N301 from May 29, 1940 - at the Saratov factory N292. Plant N47 in 1941 was evacuated to Chkalov and actually built only two Yak-1 of placer plant N292. Another 65 aircraft were made at the Moscow plant N30 also from parts of the plant N292.

Plant N301 produced Yak-1 to March of 1941 and has built 48 aircraft in 1940 and 69 in 1941. After that he moved to the Yak-7UTI.

The main and the only manufacturer later of the Yak-1 was the Saratov Aviation Plant N292. In June 1940, the drawings of the Yak-1 from the factory N 301 were transferred to the plant N292. The first serial Yak-1 was manufactured here in September 1940 and raised in the air P.H.Shustovym Colonel in October 1940. At the end of 1940 - early 1941 the aircraft factory N292 started to arrive in the Air Force. Priority was given to the supply of air defense units as had more qualified flight crews.

In the initial period of the production of the most important task in addition to the development of technology and the establishment of mass production was the lapping of the Yak-1 in order to ensure the normal operation in combat units.

In late February 1941, the Air Force NII brought the Yak-1, the fourth series N04-06 plant N301. Aircraft of the fourth series were somewhat simpler. However, most of the defects (37 of 58) were not eliminated. In addition, there were many large and small manufacturing defects, which in addition to increasing the risk of flight for pilots also caused unproductive and unacceptable waste of time large technical staff to prepare the aircraft for flight.

Thus, the plant did not comply with the decision N301 Mixed Commission. Quality of the aircraft has been subjected to very severe criticism. With the transfer of the production of Yak-1 from the factory to the plant N292 N301 deals with the removal of defects and to improve the quality of aircraft improved somewhat.

They can do anything with the 20 series on the Yak-1 Saratov plant have been carried out many important activities aimed not only at eliminating the defects, but also to a full implementation of the tactical and technical requirements to improve the fighting qualities Yak-1.

Work to eliminate the defects of the Yak-1 continued all the time the aircraft was in service. Over time, all the defects were identified and eliminated in the vast majority. Some remained unresolved: uneven and incomplete production of fuel from the left and right groups fuel tanks, knocking out oil from the breather from the gearbox shaft seals and other seals of the engine, engine overheating, lack of range and poor radio quality, etc.. In 1941, the Yak-1 the M-105PA was installed in place of the M-105P engine, which had the following major differences: design of reinforced crankcase and connecting rods; bespoplavkovye carbs that provide inverted flight for 5 minutes, and enter into a dive with negative overload; hyperbolic boring crankshaft bearings, increasing service life and contributed to the abandonment of the filters "Kuno"; more perfect speed controller R-7 instead of P-2; afterburner control; nebakelitovye housings; the maximum permissible fuel consumption 270 ... 280 g / h.

The introduction of strict control of mass production and the persistent implementation of the special measures providing generous reward designers and manufacturers literally every gram facilitate individual parts and assemblies, flight weight approximately 29 Series has been reduced and stabilized at the typical mass-produced Yak-1M -105P at 2917 kg.

Flight and mass characteristics of the Yak-1 series-built, especially in 1941-1942, were generally lower than in I-26-2 and sharply fluctuated, sometimes as a result of obvious , and sometimes for no apparent reasons.

Flight data Yak-1, in operation, of course, were lower than those of new aircraft, and depended on the state of their gliders and VMG, which determines the duration of use, quality of service and repair, the intensity of the combat operation, climatic conditions and other factors. Hemaloe value also had the ability of flight crews to get the Yak-1, the best flight data. In some cases, for the above reasons, the loss rate was more than 50 km / h.

Yak-1 M-105PA was superior to the Me-109 in speed near the ground at 50 km / h and at an altitude of 3000 m, 54 km / h. In the autumn of 1941 she appeared on the front of the fighter Me-109F-2 with a modified engine DB-601N1. In aerial combat to a height of 3000 m Me-109F had the advantage, mainly due to better vertical maneuver. Above 3000 m the Yak-1 had a clear advantage in speed, and at 2,000 ... 5,000 m could successfully fight the Me-109F and Virgil on a collision course. Hedostatkami Yak-1 compared to the Me-109F is the low rate of climb and a great loss of height in the conduct of air combat at altitudes up to 2000 m. There Yak-1 was much less.

Yak-1 M-105P and M-105PA were produced from September 1940 until May 1942. A total of 2947 aircraft were built.

Year of adopting1940
Wingspan, m10.00
Length, m8.48
Height, m
Wing area, m217.15
Weight, kg
- Empty aircraft2445
- Normal take-off 2950
engine type 1 PD M-105PA
Power, hp 1 x 1050
The maximum speed, km / h
- Near ground 472
- on high 569
Practical range, km 650
Rate of climb, m / min877
Service ceiling, m 10000
Crew 1
Armament 20-mm gun ShVAK
2 x 7.62-mm machine gun ShKAS



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Page last modified: 08-08-2016 19:55:32 ZULU