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Yak-9 - Yakovlev "Frank"

With 16,769 total production, the Yakovlev Yak-9 was the most mass-produced Soviet fighter of all time, standing only behind the Ilyushin Il-2 Sturmovik [36,183 built] and Polikarpov Po-2 / I-2 utility plane [33,000 built]. The Yak-9 was the third main type of fighter of the Yak family of the Great Patriotic War period after Yak-1 and Yak-7. The YAK-3 and YAK-9 fighters were low-wing Soviet built fighters, powered by in-line engines ranging from 1,085 to 1,580 horsepower. Maximum speed for the Yak prop fighter was 360 knots at 15,000 feet. Armament consists of one 20-mm. gun, hub-mounted and two 12.7-mm. guns in the nose.

It was not until the fall of 1942 that the Russians acquired a sufficient number of new types of planes to give the Germans a real fight. The temporary air superiority won in the defense of Leningrad and Moscow in the winter of 1941-42 owed more to the weather than to the quality of Russian aircraft or their pilots. Two new fighters came into the VVS inventory in time for the Battle of Stalingrad - the La-5 and the Yak-9.

The Yak-9 was the third in a row after the Yak-1 and Yak-7 fighter in the basic type of family "Yak" the Great Patriotic War. From the structural point of view it is a further development of the Yak-7. Not unlike it in appearance, Yak-9 at the same time was in all respects more perfect. This is natural, since the creation of this aircraft has been accounted for nearly two-year experience in manufacturing and combat use of the Yak-7 and had the opportunity to wider use of duralumin, which is not the country experienced such great difficulties at the beginning of the war. Using a metal allowed, in particular to significantly reduce the mass of the structure and use of a prize or to increase the supply of fuel, or to equip the aircraft more powerful weapons and more diverse special equipment.

Yak-9 fighter was the most massive Soviet Air Force during World War II. In mid-1944 Yak-9, Yak-9T Yak-9D and the sum was more than any other fighter jets were in service together, and they are to a large extent replaced the Yak-1 and Yak-7B on the main fronts. Release Yak-9 at factory N153 reached 20 aircraft a day.

Yak-9 was manufactured at three large plants (NN 153, 166, 82), took part in all the operations of the Soviet Army, beginning with the Battle of Stalingrad. This is one of the last and one of the best propeller fighter of World War II. All modifications have excellent flight and tactical characteristics had no significant structural or operational defects leading to accidents.

The main feature of the Yak-9 is its ability to be modified in a variety of diversion and use in combat types of aircraft, including front-line fighter with a conventional and heavy weapons, fighter long-range escort fighter-bomber, fighter-fotorazvedchik, high-altitude interceptor, double unarmed passenger special-purpose aircraft, double training and export fighter.

Yak-9 had 22 major modifications, of which 15 were built in series. The Yak-9 were installed five different types of new and modified engines, six variants of the number and volume of fuel tanks, seven choices of weapons and special equipment are two options. In addition, the Yak-9, there were two species differ materially wing: mixed and metal construction. All modifications of the Yak-9, in addition to the original design had special codes.

Yak-9 standard was issued six years - from October 1942 to December 1948 were built 16,769 aircraft. The first production aircraft was the Yak-9 with the engine M-105PF. Yak-9 with M-105PF engine and propellers-61P was a front-line fighter. It was a production aircraft, which served as the prototype for a lightweight version of the Yak-7DI. From last Yak-9 had a number of differences, the most important of which are the following: supply of fuel and the number of fuel tanks decreased, respectively, 500 kg and four tanks of up to 320 kg and two tanks (the Yak-7DI lite two console tank to not fill in, on serial Yak -9 they were absent); supply of oil is reduced from 50 to 26 ... 30 kg; bomb racks removed for outdoor suspension bombs.

Armament Yak-9 was similar to the Yak-7DI - one motorpushka ShVAK with ammunition 120 rounds and one (left) of the synchronous machine gun UBS with 200 rounds ammunition. Flight weight compared with a lightweight version of the Yak-7DI increased to 2870 ... 2875 kg, mainly due to lower crop production and less stringent weight control in industrial plants as compared to the experimental production Yakovlev Design Bureau.

Yak-9 was very agile in both the vertical and horizontal planes, easy and enjoyable to drive. He had a significant advantage in the air in front of other domestic fighters and enemy fighters. For example, in the battle on the verticals of the Yak-9 went into a tail Me-109F after the first turn of combat, and in the battle on the horizontals - after 3 ... 4 turns a bend.

Yak-9, M-105PF released two plants: N153 - from October 1942 to February 1943 (from 1st to 3rd series, the last plane - N03-51), total 195 aircraft; and N-166 from January to August 1943 (from 1st to 6th series), only 264 aircraft. Thus, a total of 459 built Yak-9, M-105PF.

For the first time in combat Yak-9 participated during the Soviet counter-offensive at Stalingrad in the second half o the fault of December 1942 In June 1943, in the Kursk area on production Yak-9 because of untapped production technology have been several cases of separation paneling from the frame of the wing in flight. This defect is corrected as it becomes available teams of OKB and production plants directly in combat units. In May 1944, the Yak-9M and subsequent modifications this defect was finally eliminated.

The Yak-9, which made its first appearance over Stalingrad in the winter of 1942-43, was being used in 1944 not only as an interceptor, but also as a ground attack plane and a fighter-bomber. In mid-1943 Yakovlev increased its fuel capacity giving the Yak-9D (dalniy, long-range) a range of 870 miles. Its range was extended even further in 1944 as the Yak-9DD (dalnyy deystiya, long-range operations) could get from the Ukraine to Italy, a distance of 1,120 miles. This plane was used as an escort for the American B-24 and B-17 bombers in their shuttle-bombing runs. It had a top speed of about 380 miles per hour.

One contributing factors in the Soviet air victory were the qualitative improvements in aircraft, equipment, and tactics as the war wore on. By 1944, the Yak-9 and La-7 were worthy matches for the Bf-109G and the FW-190. Improved radio communications and increased use of radar by late 1943 were of enormous importance in command and control. The emulation of German fighter tactics, although learned somewhat slowly, helped the Soviet pilot immensely. As Pokryshkin points out, the working out of new combat procedures under substantially new conditions was a complicated process. Complex or not, by 1943 the Soviet fighters were flying in pairs, thinking in terms of altitude and vertical attack, and learning not to expend their ammunition while far from their target.

Air operations played a minor role in the August campaign in the Far East. Gaining air superiority was an easy task for the battle-hardened VVS. The Japanese planes were obsolete, the best having been siphoned off to oppose the American drive across the Pacific. The Japanese fighters, Type 97 and Type 1 (Nakajima fighters NATE and OSCAR) were 60 to 100 miles per hour slower than the Soviet Yak-9s and La-7s, while the Mitsubishi bombers were 100 miles per hour slower than the Russian Pe-2s and Tu-2s. In addition, the Soviets were fighting a disheartened Japanese Army-the atomic bombs hit Hiroshima on August 6 and Nagasaki on the 9th. On August 10, the Emperor told the Imperial Council that the war must end. All in all, this was not the milieu in which troops could give their all in a do-or-die effort.

In October, 1946 Novosibirsk factory #153 started the serial production of the last and the most perfect modification of the fighter Yak-9 - Yak-9P. The distinctive feature of this modification of Yak was all-metal construction of glider, which ensured its prolonged service life. Among the other improvements was the enlarged number of equipment, which made piloting easier even in complicated meteorogical conditions and made its possible to mount guns with the caliber of 23, 37 and 45 mm quickly in field environment. The serial production o Yak-9P was stopped in December, 1948.

The piston-powered Yak fighters flown by the Communist pilots in Korea were considered inferior in speed and rate of climb to the jet-propelled F4U4. Maximum speed used by the Yaks was about 200 to 250 knots. Most maneuvering after the first pass was below 200 knots.

Year of adopting 1942
Wingspan, m 9.74
Length, m 8.50
Height, m 3.00
Wing area, m2 17.15
Weight, kg
- Empty aircraft 2277
- Normal take-off 2873
engine's type 1 PD Klimov VK-105PF
Power, hp 1 x 1180
The maximum speed, km / h
- Near ground 520
- on high 599
Practical range, km 875
Rate of climb, m / min 820
Service ceiling, m 11100
Crew 1
Armament:
  • one 20-mm ShVAK with 120 rounds of ammunition and
  • one (left) of the synchronous 12.7-mm machine gun UBS with 200 rounds ofammunition
  • Variants
    • Yak-7DI is a prototype. Manufactured in February 1942.
    • Yak-9 - serial fighter, which was distinguished by the absence of extreme wings. Manufactured 459 aircraft.
    • Yak-9 M-106 - an experimental fighter with an M-106-1sk engine with a capacity of 1350 hp. Manufactured in 1942.
    • Yak-9B (Yak-9L) is a fighter-bomber with a bomb bay behind the cockpit. In 1944, 109 aircraft were manufactured.
    • Yak-9V is an export training fighter based on the Yak-9T with a double cabin. From August 1945 to August 1947, 456 aircraft were manufactured. Another 337 were converted from Yak-9M.
    • Yak-9D - long-range fighter with additional fuel tanks. In 1943-1946, 3058 aircraft were manufactured.
    • Yak-9DD is a long-range fighter with a fuel reserve increased to 845 liters (9 tanks, including in the fuselage). Armament consisted of 1 gun SHVAK. From May 1944 to September 1945, 399 aircraft were manufactured. In August 1944 a group of 12 aircraft flew the Balti-Bari (Italy) flight, a distance of 1300 km.
    • Yak-9K - fighter with a 45-mm gun NS-45. In April-June 1944, at the plant number 153, 53 aircraft were manufactured. At its base, the courier version was produced with a double cabin and missing armament. In July 1944, a single copy was made at the plant No. 153.
    • Yak-9M - modernized fighter Yak-9 with a rear-cockpit. From May 1944 to June 1945, the plant number 153 produced 4239 aircraft.
    Yak-9 Fighters
    Yak-9 Yak-9T Yak-9d100 Yak-9p Yak-9m Yak-9u Yak-9p
    Year 1942 1943 1943 1944 1944 1944 1947
    Geometry
    Length of aircraft, M 8.5 8.66 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.55 8.55
    Wingspan, M 9.74 9.74 9.74 9.74 9.74 9.74 9.74
    Wing area, M2 17.15 17.15 17.15 17.15 17.15 17.15 17.15
    Unit load per wing, kg/m2 167 176 182 196 181 187 207
    Weight, kg
    Empty 2277 2298 2350 2382 2428 2512 2708
    Takeoff weight 2873 3025 3117 3356 3096 3204 3550
    Power Plant
    Motor M-105 PF M-105 PF M-105 PF VC-105 PF VC-105 PF VC-107 A VC-107 A
    Power, HP 1180 1180 1180 1180 1180 1500 1500
    Specific load on power, kg/hp 2.43 2.56 2.64 2.84 2.62 2.14 2.37
    Flight data
    Maximum speed, km/h
    Near the Earth
    520 533 535 507 518 575 590
    At height 599 597 591 562 573 572 550
    M 4300 3250 3650 3750 3750 5000 5000
    Time of height 5 km, min 5.1 5.5 6.1 6.5 6.1 5.0 5.8
    Superelevation Time, Sec 15-17 18-19 20 25-26 19-20 20 21
    Practical Ceiling, M 11100 10000 9100 8600 9500 10650 10500
    Flight range, km 875 735 1360 880 950 675 1130
    Weapons
    Number 20 mm 1 1x37 1 1 1 1 5
    12.7-mm 1 1 1 1 1 2 -

    Yak-9M (modified) - the cab is shifted by 400 mm and is located in the rear compartment of the fuselage. The goal is unification of fuselages for all types of Yak-9 aircraft, which facilitated and accelerated their release. Armament is very diverse, depending on the purpose and brand of the aircraft. The transition to production of the Yak-9 with a cabin in the rear fuselage compartment was carried out in 1944.

    Yak-9D (long-range) - with one SHVAK gun (120 rounds) and one machine gun UBS (200 cartridges), gas tanks - four, instead of two on the Yak-9M. The total capacity of the fuel tanks is 650 l (480 kg). The takeoff weight is 3117 kg, the speed of flight is 597 km / h at an altitude of 3900 m, the range is 1330 km. Extreme tanks are unprotected. There was a big series.

    Yak-9DD (long-range) - the same Yak-9D, but with eight main and one supply tank. The engine is the same, VK-?5??. The main gasoline is 880 liters (630 kg), the takeoff weight is 3276 kg, the range is over 2200 km. The aircraft is serial. A group of 12 of these aircraft (even without additional tanks) completed the flight of Balti - Bari (Italy) in August 1944 with a length of about 1300 km to assist Yugoslavia. The leader was MA Nyukhtikov on the Boston plane.

    Yak-9B (bomber, Yak-9L) - as Yak-9D, but with internal (behind the cabin) suspension of 400 kg of bombs up to 100 kg (vertically). The takeoff weight is 3150-3556 kg depending on the load. There was a series in 1944.

    Yak-9T (tank) with a VK-YU5PF engine and a VISH-105SV screw and with powerful weapons: one NS-37 gun (30 rounds) and one UBS (220 rounds). The barrel of the gun protruded from the cocoon of the propeller, and the total length of the aircraft was up to 8.65 m, and due to the size of the gun the cab was shifted 0.4 m back. The fuel stock was as in conventional Yak-9, i.e. 445 liters (330 kg), the maximum range is 890 km at an altitude of 1000 m.

    Yak-9K (large-caliber) - like the Yak-9T, but with a OKB-16 NS-45 gun of the caliber of 45 mm. To reduce the recoil force, the barrel of the gun was equipped with a muzzle brake of about 0.3 m length, and therefore the length of the aircraft increased to 8.87 m. The aircraft was built at the end of 1943, it was released by a small (army) series, it showed itself well, especially against bombers and when blocking enemy airfields.

    Yak-9R (scout) - is made as the main type, but with photographic equipment for route survey. On a part of the aircraft, the armament consisted of one SHBAK gun. The aircraft was produced in small series or modified directly in combat units by the forces of PAPM. Successfully applied in areas heavily saturated with anti-aircraft artillery and enemy fighters.

    Yak-9V (export) - a double version of the Yak-9, similar to the Yak-7V.

    Yak-9 "Courier" - in a constructive way was a combination of Yak-9DD and Yak-9V, but without weapons and with a rear cabin, comfortably equipped as a passenger. Released in 1944 by order of the Air Force in one copy.

    Yak-9 MPVO is a serial type, but with equipment for night flights, with a radio-link RPK-10 and a headlamp FS-55 in the toe of the left wing.

    Yak-9 with M-106-1ck (with a single-speed supercharger), engine power 1350 liters. from. at an altitude of 2400 m - another attempt made by the OKB in 1942, with the goal of creating a front-line fighter with improved flight data. The goal was achieved: the aircraft on state tests with a flight weight of 3,050 kg showed a speed of 351 km / h near the ground and 602 km / h at an altitude of 3,250 m, a turnaround time of 18 s, but the engine (due to incompleteness), and with it and the plane did not go into production.

    Yak-9P (cannon) - modification of the serial Yak-9 with the same engine VK-YU5PF and a motor-gun, but with the replacement of the UBS machine gun with the synchronous ShVAK gun. The mass of weapons increased by 10 kg, the flight mass and flight characteristics - almost unchanged. It was built in a single copy, successfully passed state tests in April 1943, but was not built in the series, since it was considered more expedient to equip the Yak-9 with guns of a larger caliber.

    Yak-9PD - with the engine M-105PD (with the supercharger VA Dollezhal), lightened to reach a height of 13 000 m. Seat - without armored pins (replaced with plywood), weapons: one gun ShVAK. Five copies were issued. This option was intended to fight the German scout Junkers , which in 1942-1943. appeared above Moscow at an altitude of about 13,000 m, and we did not yet have aircraft capable of climbing to this altitude. Yak-9 with relief and with the use of injection was able to reach a height of 13 000 m, but only at the maximum angle of attack. At the same height was the Junkers (as it turned out later, had no weapons). Both aircraft could barely make a turn, even with a large bend radius. And although the speed of the Yak-9 was much larger, it was very difficult for him to occupy the position for the attack. In general, both aircraft circled and dispersed, but only since then, the Junkers over Moscow no longer appeared.

    Yak-9U (improved) with the forced engine VK-105PF2 with a nominal capacity of 1240 liters. from. at an altitude of 2100 m. The aircraft showed speeds of 558 km / h near the ground and 620 km / h at an altitude of 3,850 m, which was quite enough in air battles. The aircraft was modified by the Design Bureau at the end of 1943. The aircraft received an excellent rating for state tests, was recommended for serial construction, but remained in a single copy, since the Yak-9U aircraft with VK-107A engine was preferred. However, at first the VK-107A engine turned out to be insufficiently adjusted, capricious in operation and with a small resource, which entailed a prolonged delay in the production of aircraft and equipping them with combat units. Later, after carrying out a number of finishing works, the Yak-9U aircraft with VK-107A engine was produced in large quantities and was one of the main and bestfighter aircraft .

    Yak-9 U (improved) with a new VK-107A engine of much higher power (take-off) - 1600 hp, the same dimensions as VK-105PF, but slightly heavier. At the end of 1943 it was installed on the Yak-9, and improvements were made to the aerodynamics of the aircraft. The protruding air intake of the oil cooler was abolished and replaced with openings-air intakes in the toe of the wing near the fuselage, and the water radiator was pushed back (for the necessary alignment). The increase in flight performance was significant. The speed became 600 km / h at the ground and 700 km / h at an altitude of 5,500 m, the climb time is 5000 m -4,1 min, the ceiling is 11,900 m. This list is not exhaustive, since there were even more detailed modifications without special letters. Some modifications to weapons were made by forces of military units. Yak-9 was a truly working machine




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