"Uran-9" is a caterpillar, remote-controlled combat vehicle, which belongs to the category of UCCG (Unmanned Combat Ground Vehicle) ground-based combat vehicles. "Uran-9" is not intended to replace the basic battle tanks - T-90 and T-14 "Armata", but will be used to support fire special forces and remote intelligence.
Its mass is 10 tons. In the basic version, "Uran-9" is equipped with a 30-mm automatic cannon 2A72, a 7.62 mm machine gun and ten guided missiles. The rate of fire of the gun is 350-400 rounds per minute. "Uran-9" can fire anti-tank missiles 9S120 "Ataka" (four missiles in the base) and anti-aircraft missiles 9K33 "Igla" (four units). Incorporating Ataka missiles allows the machine to fight and destroy the most modern battle tanks from a distance of eight thousand meters. The robot is also equipped with a laser control system. However, the robotic platform can be used to install a variety of weapons systems.
Sensor equipment meets the requirements of modern armored personnel carriers: there are temperature sensors, laser rangefinder, as well as day and night cameras. Systems can automatically detect, recognize, and track the target. The robotic complex consists of two Uran-9 military vehicles, a truck for their transportation, and a mobile control post. "Uranus-9" is intended for armed inspection and fire support of infantry, as well as anti-terrorist units.
The need for widespread introduction of flying drones in the Russian Federation was seriously considered after the August 2008 war. Interest in ground robotics was lower and limited to small robots for parts of radiation, chemical and biological protection. Significantly intensified work only after the appointment in 2012, Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu.
Prior to that, it was the Ministry of Emergency Situations led by him who was the leader among the law enforcement agencies on the introduction of robotics. It was from the Ministry of Emergency Situations that the most famous of our heavy military robots Uran-6 and Uran-14 came to the army. But engineering and sapper engineering of this kind is now difficult for anyone to surprise. Much more interesting is the ongoing development of real combat robots intended for direct participation in battles. Russia was among the states that not only have operating models in the troops, but they have managed to get a real combat experience of their use.
While it is limited to small rifle-grenade launchers, which since 2015 are used by the FSB in counter-terrorist operations in the North Caucasus. The heavier army combat robots "Platform-M", weighing up to 800 kg, received for experimental operation the coastal troops of the Navy in Kaliningrad and Kamchatka. Similar characteristics of Nerekhta are tested in the Russian Strategic Forces (RVSN) to guard launchers on the march and the Land Force as a means of supporting motorized infantry on the battlefield. Their more peaceful transport and reconnaissance modifications have also been built, and only a small dozen supervisory and engineering robots weighing up to 100 kg have a Ministry of Defense more than a dozen.
The twelve-ton radio-controlled "Uran-9" developed by JSC "766 UPTK" of the Ministry of Defense of Russia. Beginning in early 2016 the Russian Ministry of Defense began broadcasting media information about the tests of the robotic system "Uran-9". At first glance, "Uranus-9" looks impressive, but is such a category of robotic systems suitable for use in modern combat? In reality, "Uranus-9" is a radio-controlled robot. It is not known whether it can move in a complex environment, such as, for example, a forest, a city, and also in rough terrain or even along roads.
According to the idea of designers, "Uran" should work in pairs - a robot of fire support with a robot scout. Their buildings are stuffed with various equipment, aiming complexes, range finders, search and communication systems, traffic and fire control. The work of the whole economy is controlled by an on-board calculator - the "brains" of Uranus. Machines are able to detect the enemy laser on their own and close the smoke screen, track down the technique and the enemy's living force.
The "Uran-9" vehicles must be controlled from a stationary base, and visibility between the "robots" and the control base is required. This is the big difference between ground and air drones, which thanks to the flight altitude can be controlled at a distance of tens or hundreds of kilometers. UAVs can also be controlled by satellite communication, because there are no obstacles to communication. And here below, on earth, satellite communications are blocked by buildings, trees, mountains, natural obstacles and even leaves on trees.
In addition, for the possible control through the satellite, very fast transmission of information (first of all, video) or instant data processing is necessary. The question is whether the Russian military satellite can provide a reliable and fast transfer of such a large amount of data. Another risk is, of course, the possibility of interrupting communications by means of electronic combat of the enemy. There are tools to cope with some problems. For example, by means of drone or airship, which will serve as a communication relay. However, it still requires direct visibility for management, not to mention the complexity of the entire system.
So it is not worthwhile, for example, to expect the participation of Uran-9 funds in assaults next to tanks or infantry fighting vehicles in rapidly changing difficult conditions. The highest efficiency "Uranium-9" will reach on large flat surfaces with high-quality communication coverage. By the way, the Russian army wants to use robotic combat systems to protect the outer perimeter of the bases of strategic missile forces. Traditional vehicles with crew would do much better with this task.
Since 2008 Israel has been successfully using to guard its border a light unmanned vehicle Guardium, which has the same limitations as the Uran-9. "Uran-9" will go into service in 2017-2018 and will also be offered to foreign buyers.
Combat robots are designed for use in any environment (air, land and sea) and can perform various tasks: from reconnaissance and to fire suppression tasks. The leading developer is the United States, but Russia, which later joined the "race of robot technologies" later in other industrialized countries, has recently advanced far enough in combat. As an express analysis of the state of technology in military robotics, consider these two powers, tk. they reflect not only a different approach to the concept of "combat robot", but also have unique developments. In world practice, a weight gradation of robots is adopted. Robots are divided by weight into three groups. Light - with combat weight up to 3,32 tons, medium - from 3,32 to 13 tons and heavy - over 13 tons.
Russia could use its Uran-9 multipurpose robotic combat system in Syria, Viktor Murakhovsky, Editor-in-Chief of Arsenal of the Fatherland journal and defense expert told RIA Novosti 09 January 2017. Murakhovsly was commenting on British media reports citing a high-placed source in the Western intelligence community that a number of Uran-9 combat robots could soon be sent to Syria for use in urban warfare. “There is no secret in that Russia is using its combat robots in Syria, not only the Uran-6 mine-disposal ones, but also the Soratnik and Nerechta systems. As for the Uran-9s, I’m not ruling out that that they could pop up in Syria, along with other systems,” Murakhovsky said.
He mentioned earlier statements by Russian “political and military leaders” about Moscow currently testing new types of weapons in Syria even before they actually enter service with the armed forces at home. Viktor Murakhovsky said that he doubted the veracity of the British media reports, adding that mainstream media often present information taken from Arabic-language social networks as one coming from their sources within the intelligence community.
Igor Korotchenko, Editor-in-Chief of National Defense journal, agreed that the reports could have been organized by the British defense ministry to blame Russia for the use of disproportionate military force in Syria. Mentioning the expediency of using unmanned armored vehicles in Syria, Viktor Murakhovsky said that, apart from revealing technical shortfalls in combat situations, they help reduce casualties among Russian servicemen deployed there. “The use of robotic platforms is meant to make up for the current downsizing of our military presence in Syria and save the lives of our servicemen. We can already see a dramatic drop in our casualty figures compared with what we had during previous conflicts,” he emphasized.
In May 2018, the Russian army sent at least one Uran-9 ground-based combat robot to Syria for testing in real combat conditions. However, "Uran-9" did not then demonstrate the qualities that its creators expected. After just one month of his participation in the hostilities, the Kremlin admitted that this unmanned ground combat vehicle is not yet ready to be used regularly on the front lines.
Senior Researcher of the Federal State Budgetary Institution of the Third Central Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense of Russia Andrei Anisimov made an internal report at a conference at the Naval Academy named after Kuznetsov in St. Petersburg, it took place from 3 to 6 April 2018. In the document, the specialist stressed that the Uran-9 system actually failed the tests in Syria."
"Uranus-9" - a 12-ton, armed with a cannon and missiles, an unmanned ground complex - was said by analysts from the British defense company BAE Systems to be: "Unreliable." In addition to its "inability to perform assigned tasks in the course of combat operations of the classical type," other shortcomings were also highlighted. BAE Systems experts believe that Uranus-9, if it acts without human intervention, has limited autonomous capabilities, namely, the ability to detect, identify and destroy enemy targets.
“Thermal and electro-optical sensors located on the radio-controlled Urana-9 are unable to detect enemy targets at a distance of more than 1.25 miles (2 km). The sensors, as well as the weapons systems they controlled, turned out to be useless, since the Uran-9 was moving due to the lack of necessary stabilization. There were significant delays after the transmission of commands, ”- emphasized the specialists of BAE Systems. In addition, in their opinion, "Uran-9" was "vulnerable" to radio interference, and this could lead to "loss of communication and control."
The Uran-9 combat robotic complex has been adopted by the Russian army, Vladimir Dmitriev, general director of the Kalashnikov concern, said 24 January 2021. According to him, the complex will be finalized taking into account the combat use in Syria. "Syria is an excellent testing ground for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of any weapon," added Dmitriev.
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