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Combat Robots / Boevye Roboty - Robototehnicheskih Kompleksov [RTK]

Combat Robots do not have fear and emotions inherent in human nature and superfluous in battle, they do not need to duck from explosions and shots. Steel fighters can be safely thrown into the very heat of battle, controlling them from the dugout or the headquarters. Fearless iron guardsman can get close to a pillbox and destroy the machine-gun fire, support the fire of their soldiers, go on watch or to the enemy's rear with a special mission.

After a long delay, Russia is finally accelerating the development of the most advanced combat ground and airborne robots. "The evolution of modern ground-based robotic systems (RTK) for military purposes is on the path of increasing the ability to perform tasks in an autonomous mode with a gradual decrease in the involvement of the operator in the process of controlling RTK. To increase the level of autonomy of ground-based RTKs, the development of a number of key technologies is required, determine the appearance of promising RTKs.Therefore, it is relevant to develop robotics technologies and bring them to the level of readiness that allows the technology to be applied on promising autonomous RTKs in real conditions.

  1. First, the process of creating domestic robotized systems, both aviation and land and sea, continues - new samples appear, previously created ones are improved. Moreover, the development goes on a wide range.
  2. Secondly, despite the fact that the Russian Defense Ministry has developed relations with a number of companies, the situation on the market cannot be called predetermined, fixed new developers continue to emerge, some enterprises expand their areas of competence from one type or type of unmanned systems to others. There is competition, and this is certainly a positive circumstance.
  3. Third, the Russian military demonstrate much more progressive views on the use of a variety of unmanned systems than it was a few years ago. Such an interest in turn is a factor that stimulates developers.
  4. Fourthly, Russian companies that had previously worked with an eye to foreign achievements, began to offer their own, sometimes in the full sense of innovative solutions that sometimes exceed foreign models, and sometimes do not have foreign analogues.
  5. And finally, fifthly, thanks to the experience gained by the use of unmanned systems by the military, the established practice of creating relevant systems by industrial enterprises and the cooperation that has emerged, it can be said that more systematization is felt in the work carried out than was previously the case.

The idea of an unmanned combat vehicle is not new. This excerpt from the April 1931 issue of the Radio-Craft magazine, uncovered by the author of Paleofuture blog, serves as an excellent summary to this point of view. "Writers of war stories, peering into the future, predict an approaching era when fighting will be done by machinery under remote control. Guns automatically operated will fire from deserted fortifications and from tanks which contain no living operators. Airplanes without human pilots will observe positions through televisors, and drop projectiles guided from a post at headquarters, many miles away. The casualties will be solely among robots of steel and copper, whose orders are conveyed to them by radio, or other subtle signalling methods. Such is the picture which is painted upon the drop curtain which conceals the next warif it be true that war has not been abolished along with the dips in the business cycle," the article's author said.

TT-18 + TT-26Attempts to design unmanned remote-controlled combat vehicles date back to the first half of the 20th century. For example, the Soviet Union produced and successfully tested several types of the so called 'teletanks' battle tanks remotely controlled by radio. Back in 1933 in the Soviet Union tests were conducted of a remote-controlled TT-18 tank. The tank under the control of the operator could move to a distance of up to 1.5 km. The first tests were not very successful, in contrast to the experiments with TT-26, which was released in a small series of 55 units.

The TT-26 was armed with DT machine guns, 45 mm cannons, and some had flamethrowers, explosives and chemical weapons in their arsenal. Battle baptism of TT-26 was received during the Soviet-Finnish Winter War of 1939-1940. The most effective version was TT-26 with a bomb weighing 500 kg, which allowed to destroy the pillboxes on the "Mannerheim Line".

The control system TT-26 was built on electromechanical relays, the actions of which the operator managed through radio commands. On the control buttons, sixteen teams were responsible for starting the engine, moving, maneuvering and using weapons. In case of the TT-26 exit from the reach of the radio control, after 30 seconds the tank stopped and, with the engine running, expected the operator to approach.

The disadvantage of TT-26 was the inability to respond to changing the situation on the battlefield. The tank could not react to anti-tank guns in ambush and anti-tank mines, it was difficult to control them on hilly terrain. Therefore, after the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War, a successful experience, in principle, was for a long time forgotten. And once again remembered only in the XXI century.

VikhrThe honorary title of the heaviest and most powerful of Russian-made robots today belongs to the reconnaissance-strike ground complex "Vikhr" [Vortex / Whirlwind] on the basis of BMP-3. The armored "beast" was first introduced to the general public in 2016. The machine weighs almost 15 tons and is armed "to the teeth": a 30-millimeter automatic gun 2A72, coupled with it 7.62-mm machine gun PKTM and anti-tank missile system "Cornet-M". A powerful arsenal can be used for ground and air targets on the go. The complex architecture of the "Vortex" includes the basic robotic chassis of BMP-3, the combat module ABM-BSM-30, the mobile robotic platform MRP-100 (300), communication and control systems. The complex has even its own wing of four drone "Sentry". The commander and the operator remotely control all these by radio channels. It is interesting that, if necessary, a mechanic driver can sit inside and control the robot as a conventional infantry fighting vehicle.

"Vortex" was initiated by the initiative of the Main Research and Testing Center for Robotics of the Ministry of Defense, the Sevastopol Scientific and Technical Center "Impulse-2" and the All-Russian Research Institute "Signal". The machine was created to increase the combat capabilities of military units, reduce losses at the front, as well as to protect important facilities and perform special missions.

With the help of ground robots "Argo" and "Platform-M", on December 20, 2015, the Syrian troops managed to take a tower at a strategically important height in Latakia province. The attack involved six complexes of Platform-M and four robots "Argo" with the support of artillery and soldiers of the Syrian army. After a hot but short battle at the height taken, almost 70 killed jihadists counted, and only four soldiers were wounded by Syrian soldiers.

"Platform-M" was created at "NITI Progress "(Izhevsk). The armored robot on the caterpillar chassis is armed with four AGS-30 grenade launchers and a Kalashnikov machine gun. Instead of grenade launchers, it is possible to install the Cornet ATGM, that is, if necessary, the robot can also fight with the armored vehicles of the enemy. In addition, Platform-M can carry out reconnaissance with the help of a set of opto-electronic reconnaissance, patrol the territory, provide passage through the minefield and mine the terrain with the help of the mine-blocker KTPN-3.

ArgoThe combat robotic complex "Argo" was developed in the Central Research Institute of Robotics and Technical Cybernetics (St. Petersburg). It is intended for reconnaissance, as well as for fire support of sea assault from the sea and on land. In addition, the robot can perform survey of the coast, ensure the delivery of ammunition and cargo. "Argo" is armed with a 7.62-mm PKT machine gun, three anti-tank RPG-26 grenade launchers, two RGG-2 grenade launchers.

Argo has a protected bottom, a low center of gravity, wheels with a special tread pattern. Controlling the movement of the vehicle is carried out by braking the wheels of one of the sides. It is possible increase off-road mobility with the use of tracks. The vehicle is completely floating. Argo can be used for sea assault operations. The remote-controlled platform is capable of providing fire support to assault teams, exploring the coast, ensuring the delivery of cargo and ammunition for units engaged in combat on the seaside.

Perhaps the most famous robotic complex "Nerekhta" from the Degtyarev plant is built on a universal caterpillar platform and is used by the Foundation for Advanced Studies (analogue of the American agency DARPA) to break into the newest technologies. As a real commando "Nerehtu" is taught to fight in conjunction with other robots, practice on it artificial intelligence, the latest communication and control systems.

Initially, it was conceived to adjust the artillery fire, and eventually turned out to be a fighter with a large-caliber machine gun "Cord" (or PKTM) at the ready. In the remote mode, "Cord" shoots continuous bursts of 600-750 rounds per minute. In addition to the machine gunner, scouts or conveyors can be created on the Nerekhta platform. They control them from the console from the command machine. The fighting qualities of the machine were evaluated in the Strategic Missile Forces, where it is used to guard mobile ground-based missile systems "Topol-M" and "Yars" from saboteurs. Optoelectronic system, thermal imager, laser rangefinder and ballistic computer are excellent at day and night.

In the Russian army, the robot Nerekhta and the robot Uran-6, which was tested in Syria during the demining of the city of Palmyra, also serve. The robots of MRK, "Companion" and "Uran-9" are being tested. In addition, research works (R & D) are carried out on the robotization of the T-14 Armata tank and on the reconnaissance and strike complex Vikhr, developed on the basis of BMP-3.

In October 2019, Russia's Scientific Production Association "Android engineering" presented it's newest platform, Marker, designed to be used with robotic technologies. A contingent of multifunctional robotic machines capable of solving combat tasks may be created in Russia by 2025, a source in the defence industry told Russian media.

"The task to form such a contingent is set in the framework of developing combat robotic science starting in 2020. The experimental development works should be completed by 2025 and then this robotic contingent will be integrated into the Russian military force", the source said. Continuing on, the source said that a contingent will include five robots - each of the robotic machines will carry out separate such as refuelling or security activities.

The robots will be created with the use of the Marker platform that was revealed for the first time in mid-October 2019. "The platform permits us to do a number of things. It's not the same situation as we had previously when there's one robot and five people, maintaining its operation. Now, there're five robots with only one person doing routine maintenance work", the source added.

According to the source, the robots are capable of carrying unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and may be capable of carrying assault rifle grenade launcher systems and 120 mm mortar systems. "In future, such robotic machines will be battling other machines of this kind. The main value of these robots is that they're capable of substituting people, exceeding human capabilities", the source stated.

The work of the specialists of the Foundation for Advanced Study on the "Marker" can help increase the reliability and autonomy of such front-line unmanned ground complexes as "Uran-9". The Marker complex, which is similar in size to a tank, most likely received a chassis from already existing reliable armored vehicles, so it may be simpler and stronger than the smaller and custom-made Uran-9. The immediate goal for these robots is not to replace soldiers in the Russian ground forces, but to complement them. Unmanned ground systems are now supposed to be assistants in performing a wide variety of urgent functions - combat, reconnaissance, logistics, evacuation, and other tasks.

It became known that the tests of "Uranus-9" will be completed before the end of 2018. The ground-based drones of the Uran family were created by the Moscow Region JSC "766 Production and Technological Equipment Management" - they are developing high-tech military equipment. Uran-9 is intended for reconnaissance and infantry fire support. Equipping a nine-ton, similar to a small tank machine allows you to inspect a given area, suppress opened firing points, and on the way back set fire to one or the other BMP. The standard weapon of the "Uranus-9" is a 30-millimeter automatic cannon, containers with anti-tank missiles, rocket-propelled flamethrowers, automatic grenade launchers can also be mounted on the combat module. The robot guidance system is multichannel, with optical, laser and infrared modules. The car is controlled by a closed radio channel with frequency tuning. To seize control of "Uranus" is impossible.

A modification of the BMP-3 called "Dragoon" is a platform that differs from a standard infantry fighting vehicle by a turret located in the center of the hull, and not in front, like the BMP-3. Another feature of the "Dragoon" - modular weapons. The machine can install twin 100-mm and 30-mm cannons, one 57-mm cannon or a 125-mm tank gun.

Tests of the universal remotely controlled autonomous combat module Vortex developed by the NTTs Impuls-2 JSC (Sevastopol) with a 30-mm automatic 2A72 gun on a robotic fighting platform on the BMP-3 chassis developed by the Main Research and Development Center of Robotics of the Russian Defense Ministry and JSC "VNII" Signal" in 2016.

The demining machine and the assault ["shock"] robot of the Uran family were tested in Syria and showed their capabilities quite well, said Borisov in an interview with Russia 24 on 05 May 2018. Machines are experiencing combat operation in the army. This type of test involves the identification of deficiencies inherent in the new technology, and their elimination, the adaptation of new products for military needs.

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Page last modified: 13-09-2021 17:23:39 ZULU