Many types of turboprop transport aircraft have been designed and built in Russia. The largest passenger carrying turboprop ever built was the Tupolev Tu-114. This aircraft has a gross weight of 377,000 pounds and is equipped with four 14,795 equivalent shaft horsepower turboprop engines. Each of these engines drives two counterrotating propellers. The wings are sweptback, which is unusual for propeller-driven aircraft; the amount of sweep is 34°. The aircraft carries 220 passengers and cruises at a speed of 478 miles per hour at an altitude of 29 500 feet.
The TU-114 was a long-range passenger airliner built on the basis of serial TU-95 using many of its components. From the very beginning the aircraft was designed in the "luxury" version: a cabin of the 1st class, sleeping cabins (by the type of railway coupe), a bar-restaurant, a salon of the 2nd class. A.N. Tupolev declared: "... When we began to arrange the" 114th ", I thought: is it possible that the head of our government, going across the ocean, will sail for a whole week on the ship? While other presidents and premiers fly across continents on their Douglas, Boeing and Lancaster in a matter of hours. " And most importantly, he was able to make a non-stop transatlantic flight from Moscow to Washington. "
The first flight was 15 November 1957 and it entered serial production in 1958. Entering regular operation in 1961, the aircraft was produced in versions intended for 170 and 200 passenger. There was a version with reduced passenger capacity TU-114D which was designed for flights to Cuba. a total of 32 TU-114 aircraft were built which operated up to 1976. A total of 32 world records were established on TU-114 aircraft. This model was successfully used by domestic and international airlines for over 15 years. For a number of years it was recognized as the best in the world.
The correctness of the chosen approach in TU-104 aircraft design was confirmed and developed when building intercontinental passenger aircraft TU-114. In this case the design of TU-95 serial strategic bombers was selected as basic. Having entered into test process in autumn of 1957, the TU-114 started regular operation in early 1960s on long-range routes both within the USSR and on intercontinental routes.
Tu-114 was one of the first long range airliners. In Soviet civil aviation, it became a truly epoch-making aircraft. It was characterized by excellent handling and stability in all modes, comfort for passengers. The high speed allowed 14-hour-15 intercontinental flights. For its effectiveness, it surpassed all modern aircraft (including foreign) and remained the best for over 10 years.
As a government aircraft, it required refinement in terms of comfort. Tables in the bar-restaurant were located directly in the plane of rotation of the engine screws, where low-frequency noise was especially strong. From vibration vibrations in the nests of thermos, coffee pots, dining utensils slid to the edges of the tables and strived to fall to the floor. The rest of the passengers was disturbed by the constant rumble of the air ducts. But it was carried slightly easier than on the IL-18. Yes, and then there was nothing to compare with.
A total of 32 TU-114 aircraft were produced in 170 and 200 passenger versions, along with versions with reduced passenger capacity and non-stop intercontinental ranges to fly to Cuba.
- TU-114 (114, Tu-95P) - basic passenger aircraft.
- TU-114-116 - the long-range flight to Montreal and Tokyo. Different cabin on 116 seats, the availability of rescue rafts SP-12. Developed in 1965. The plane USSR-76464 was installed on the pedestal at Domodedovo.
- TU-114-200 - - the option to layout for 200 passengers, in the 1970s under this arrangement had been converted virtually all aircraft.
- Tu-114A - (draft). Different wing of the type TU-142, 98-102 seats in the cabin. Project upgraded aircraft for non-stop flights, tight coffer-tanks, as amended mechanization Wing design work carried out in the years 1962-1963; was developed in the years 1963-1964. In the 1970s, a modification of the Tu-114A was developed, in which, according to VG Delyori, "it was planned to significantly improve the performance of the car by changing the profile and mechanization of the wing. Unfortunately, Tu-114A was not implemented. Not found application in practice, and a whole series of planned improvements and improvements to the machine - they were not shown interest. And those innovations that have broken the road, were born with great difficulty."
- Tu-114D - distant. Characterized by 3 additional fuel tanks, totaling 17,000 liters. Composition pilot equipment on board the liferaft. The number of passengers reduced to 52-60. The flight crew performed 2 exchangeable. Converted 7 aircraft in the years 1961-1962 for the flight to Cuba. A lower deck placed additional fuel tanks, take-off weight was increased to 182,000 kg; During the design process of the Tu-114, the Tupolev OKB decided to convert three surplus military Tu-95s. The purpose of these planes was testing, such as propulsion tests, analysis of compatibility issues with civil airports, and route/scheduling studies. Designated Tu-116, these planes were converted by removing the gun turret and adding a pressurised cabin to the aft fuselage. The sole customer for the Tu-116 was Aeroflot, which later redesignated it Tu-114D. Original plane was a parallel project to support TU-114. Only two aircraft build and first flew in 1957-1958.Both has exact dimensions and are direct civil variants of the TU-95 bomber.In 1958 second aircraft was assigned to Aeroflot and re-registered as civil number 76462.First used for crew training for TU-114.Biggest publicity aircraft had in three zig-zag tours of the Soviet Union in 1958 with 24 officials and journalists covering 34400km in 48.5 hours.
- Tu-114PLO - antisubmarine (draft). retrofitting project Tu-114 aircraft in the PLO with a nuclear power plant.
- TU-114T - proposed conversion of passenger Tu-114 to cargo transportation
- Tu-114TS - transportation and health-based Tu-114 (draft).
- TU-114 (with the new PNA) - Two recent serial Tu-114 with an updated flight control and navigation equipment. In the future, the entire fleet was remodeled the same way;
- 114 Tu-6NK-8 - a draft long-range aircraft with six DTRD NC-8, the project was seen as an alternative to the Il-62M;
- TU-115 (115, Tu-114VTA) - airborne paratrooper transport aircraft (draft) - a draft military transport aircraft based on the first wide-version of Tu-114;
- TU-116 - At the direction of Tupolev, in order not to frustrate Khrushchev's 1959 planned visit to the USA, the OKB began to re-equip the Tu-95 military strategic bomber in a deep secret for security in secret. Sealed cabin with two compartments for high passengers placed in the bomb bay. Mounted buffet-kitchen, toilet and office space. The aircraft was equipped with a special ladder, through which passengers could board and leave the aircraft without special airfield equipment. These aircraft were called Tu-116. But everything turned out, the work was completed on time, and the converted bombers remained unclaimed. Currently, the Tu-116 (the USSR's number - 76462) is stored in the Ulyanovsk Museum of Civil Aviation.
- TU-126 (126) - DRLO aircraft. In the years 1962-1967 made 9 aircraft. The military modified TU-114 were designated as TU-126 and NATO reporting name Moss. It was believed that they were converted from civilian aircraft and fitted with early detection and guidance system with a rotating radar antenna on the tail pylon on the part of the fuselage. The plane also had a petrol bar system refueling in the air and a large number of blisters and streamlined fairing, covering service equipment. Former passenger cabin providing enough space for the powerful radio equipment, radar equipment and equipment for processing signals, as well as the dashboard for specialist operato