The Largest Security-Cleared Career Network for Defense and Intelligence Jobs - JOIN NOW


TsKB-16 Volna

TsKB-16 was the former TsKB-L reorganised in 1948 as TsKB-16 which worked on heavy cruisers. Design bureau TsKB-16, which previously designed surface warships, was transferred to submarine projects in May 1953. It worked on missile submarines from 1953 and from 1965 nuclear submarines. It absorbed TsKB-143 around 1954-5 and was renamed TsPB 'Volna' in 1966, finally joining SKB-143 in St.P morskoe byuro mashinostroeniya in Malakhit 1974.

N.N.Isanin was Director of TsKB-16 from 1949 to 1963. N.N.Isanin worked on cruisers, heavy cruisers, and battleships, and during the war, on torpedo boats. Later on, beginning in the 1950s, he worked on submarines, primarily missile carriers. Isanin's role in creating missile submarines was the role of a pioneer, and not only in creation of new ships but also in the birth of new missile systems, because flight tests of the new missiles were carried out with these ships. Consequently all of the technical concepts adopted in the development of the complex system consisting of a submarine and a missile system were checked out in these tests, after which they were introduced into ships of other classes armed with the new missile system.

By the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of October 15, 1949 "On Improving the Design of Ships and on Measures Aid to the Design Bureau and Scientific Research Institutes of Military Shipbuilding" a design bureau for designing battleships and heavy cruisers was organized - Central Design Bureau No. 16 (TsKB-16). In the development of this decree by order of the Minister of the shipbuilding industry of December 12, 1949, CDB-16 was established. Nikolai Nikitich Isanin was appointed chief - chief designer of the Central Design Bureau.

From February 1, 1950, the Bureaus team began its main task - designing a heavy cruiser of Project 82 - a ship with powerful artillery weapons, high speed and reliable armor protection. Leonid Vladimirovich Dikovich was appointed the chief designer of the project.

In the process of reviewing the draft design, the main tactical and technical elements of the cruiser of the project 82 were reported to JV Stalin, who instructed to increase the ships speed to a value significantly higher than the speed of foreign ships of the same class. This required increasing the capacity of the main turbine unit by almost 30%, which was done by the Bureaus designers in collaboration with the creators of the GEM, without significantly increasing the ships dimensions.

In December, a technical project 82 was submitted for approval to the Navy Ministry and SMEs. By the end of 1950, 45 teams of leading research institutes, design bureaus and the largest factories took part in the creation of the heavy cruiser project 82. The joint work of the Bureau with these teams and representatives of the Navy contributed to the creation of a ship with exceptionally high tactical and technical elements: the project laid the world's most powerful power plant (GTZA - 4x51470 kW; 4x70,000 hp), three powerful artillery weapons -Smobile turrets SM-31 caliber 304.8 mm, six 2-gun turrets BL-109A 130 mm caliber, reliable armor and anti-mine protection. Specification speeds: full speed - 36 knots, cruising - 24 knots.

The main cruiser of the project 82 "Stalingrad" was built in Nikolaev at the plant number 444, the second cruiser at the Baltic plant and the third in Severodvinsk at the plant number 402. To address operational issues, CKB-16 branches were organized in the cities of Nikolaev and Severodvinsk. After the death of I. V. Stalin by order of April 23, 1953 No. 00112 of the Minister of Transport and Heavy Engineering I. I. Nosenko, all work on project 82 was discontinued.

On April 3, 1953, Order No. 00112 of the Minister of Transport and Heavy Machinery TsKB-16 was entrusted with the project of a small combat submarine A615 with a "single engine", which was transferred from TsKB-18. The main designer of the submarine was A. S. Kassatsier, who worked during the war years in OKB-196 where he created an experimental submarine of Project 95 with a single engine using ED-KPI.

Along with the development of working drawings, given the large amount of accepted design changes, the Bureau had to develop a set of technical design documents and the necessary technological documentation for the construction of submarines in two plants. For the plant No. 196, the flow-position method was applied, and for the plant No. 194 a project of a fundamentally new technology for the construction of submarines was created - using the block method.

In September 1955 head submarine M-255, out of five under construction by plant No. 196, completed factory tests. In December 1955, the state acceptance took the head submarine M-255 and four more serial submarines into the Baltic Fleet. The displacement of the submarine A615 was 406 tons, immersion depth, maximum, 120 m, underwater speed of 15 knots underwater, type EI - diesel-electric with a single engine of type U-KPI, torpedo armament - four TA caliber 533 mm. The number of crew - 10 people. According to the project A615, 29 submarines were built, of which plant No. 196 - 23 submarines, plant No. 194 - 6 submarines.

The construction plan for the A615 series of submarines envisaged the creation of special surface vessels to ensure the operation of the submarines: unloading the spent and loading fresh granulated HPI and filling with liquid oxygen. For these purposes, under the design of TsKB-16 under the leadership of chief designer M. P. Rempel, the project 431 self-propelled self-propelled barges were converted into support vessels. The conversion project was given the number 431PU.

In December 1955, a 431PU self-propelled barge converted into the main support ship and built at the Vyborg Shipyard was accepted into the auxiliary vessels of the Navy. According to the results of construction and the comments of the state acceptance committee, the project was revised. In 1957, another 2 vessels entered service, and the latter was re-equipped in 1958.

In addition, to solve the problem of creating a vessel for refueling with liquid oxygen of the A615 Submarine Submarine, a technical project 216 of a non-propelled support vessel was created under the direction of M. P. Rempel, developed at TsKB-16 on the basis of a 411bis non-propelled barge. During 1955 - 1956 2 barges were converted into supporting project vessel 216.

At the time of the transfer of the A615 project to TsKB-18, work on request was at the stage of detailed design and about a quarter of the required drawings were sent to the construction plants. The TsKB-16 team was ordered to issue the remaining missing documentation before October 1.

On August 4, 1955, an order was issued by the SME to return the group transferred to TsKB-16 in 1953 to the TsKB-18 with the full membership and transfer of projects 95, 615, A615, 630 and 637 from September 1 to TsKB-18.

Initially the bureau took over Project A615 [Quebec] from TsKB-18, but in 1955 that project was returned to TsKB-18 and TsKB-16 focused on diesel-electric seubmarines carrying ballistic mieeils. These included Project 611 Zulu SSB and project 629 [Golf SSB].

While serving as a naval officer, K.B. Malinin provided sketches of what later became the world's first ballistic missile submarines. Along with fellow officers B. F. Vasilyev, V. V. Bashenkov, and N. I. Petelin, their ideas and sketches were the basis of the preliminary specifications drawn up by the Technical Design Bureau (TsKB-16 (Volna)). The group that started it all included Engineer-Rear Admiral N. A. Sulimovskiy, Engineer-Captain 2d Rank P. N. Maruta and Engineer-Captain 3d Rank N. P. Prokopenko. This group knew that before submitting a proposal to industry, they had to themselves think out the specific conditions under which the new weapons would be used in combat, and formulate the requirements corresponding to these conditions. But this wasn't enough either. They also had to work out the possible ways of realizing these requirements. The project was joined by B. V. Barsov, V. V. Sheremetev and D. P. Tkachenko, and subsequently by A. A. Bulygin, A. G. Vyzolmirskiy, A. S. Avdonin and other comrades. The results of their work were the first precondition for raising the question before design organizations. The second, though in importance it might also be called the first, was finishing work on the design of the new R-11 army missile at OKB-1 [Special Design Office No 1] of NII-88 [Scientific Research Institute No 88]. This missile had a number of characteristics that met the requirements of missiles launched from submarines.

In the book "Vvedeniye v raketnuyu tekhniku" [Introduction to Rocket Engineering] published in 1956, its authors V. I. Fedosyev and G. B. Sinyarev were very cautious in their appraisal of the possibility of using ballistic missiles at sea: "A ballistic missile is a heavy, cumbersome apparatus requiring complex transporting and launching equipment. It would be hard to use such missiles on seagoing vessels as a consequence of this." This book was reviewed by a scientist well known in missile building, and a long associate of S. P. Korolev--Mikhail Klavdiyevich Tikhonravov. Consider that the reference here was to seagoing vessels in general, and not to submarines, aboard which the conditions for using missiles should seem even more unacceptable. But the future difficulties were justified by the promise of the new technology and its importance to strengthening the state's defense capabilities.

The project needed the consent of TsKB-16 [Central Design Office No 16] chief designer Nikolay Nikitich Isanin to design the submarine to serve as the vehicle for the ballistic missiles. Friends in the design office under his direction said that this work was offered to several chief designers, but apparently the absence of analogues made them doubt the possibility of carrying out such a project in limited time. TsKB-16 department chief V. I. Yefimov recalls that in late 1953 a meeting was held between N. N. Isanin and S. P. Korolev in his office at the OKB-1. Sergey Pavlovich showed the R-11 missile to his guest, and shared his thoughts. Understanding the complexity of the tasks posed to him, N. N. Isanin accepted Korolev's proposal. Such was the way this remarkable union of two chiefs--S. P. Korolev and N. N. Isanin--was formed. Two or three days later Korolev organized an expanded conference, this time attended by N. N. Isanin, N. A. Pilyugin, Ye. G. Rudyak, N. A. Sulimovskiy, P. N. Maruta and representatives of the navy's Main Ship Building Directorate. Sergey Pavlovich brought up and discussed the problems of organizing coordination among the project participants.

The government decree "On Carrying Out Work to Investigate the Possibility of Launching Ballistic Missiles From Submarines and to Design the First Attack Submarines Armed With R-11FM Sea-Launched Ballistic Missiles" was published on 26 January 1954. The project was code-named "Volna" ["Wave"].

Leadership of work on this project was entrusted to TsKB-16 chief designer N. N. Isanin and OKB-1 NII-88 chief designer S. P. Korolev. The organizations participating in the work included the NII-885 (chief designer N. A. Pilyugin), OKB-2 (chief designer A. M. Isayev), NII-49 (director N. A. Charin), MNII-1 [not further identified] (director E. I. Eller), TsKB-34 (chief designer Ye. G. Rudyak) and Plant No 402 (director Ye. P. Yegorov).

In spring 1954, as that same V. I. Yefimov recalls, Korolev arrived in Leningrad. Isanin acquainted him with the results of the first efforts to accommodate the missile aboard a submarine. The leadership and leading specialists of TskB-16 were convened in the conference hall for a meeting with Korolev. Especially memorable in Korolev's speech to the shipbuilders was his statement that "the components of the missile system (the launch tubes, the systems maintaining them, the fire control equipment) were so intimately connected with the structures and systems of the ship itself that our collectives had to work as one in fulfilling this unusual and very important assignment. Only in this way will it be possible to succeed in the enterprise it has begun. In this case constant attention must be turned to deadlines."

In order to reduce the time it took to complete all of the work, the commonly accepted sequence of development of a ship and its weapons was changed, and individual stages, even ones dependent upon one another, were carried out in parallel. Thus by as early as late 1954, long before flight tests on the R-11FM missile from the terrestrial test bed were started--that is, in the absence of expert confirmation of the possibility of launching this missile from a rocking platform, development of all of the planning documents for the missile submarine were completed, including the blueprints.

Refitting of the submarine proceeded practically simultaneously with preparation for and conduct of tests of the missile from the terrestrial test bed. Flight tests of the missile with the submarines were limited to just the trials under the programs of mooring and drydock running tests of the ship.

Only these two -- the great chiefs S.P.Korolev and N.N.Isanin -- could dare to do something like this. The responsibility was colossal. But ultimately by as early as August 1955, just a year and a half after publication of the government decree on the "Volna" project, both the ship and the missile system were ready for joint testing. Initially V. P. Makeyev's newly established design office was intended for series production of R-11 missiles. The motherland made a high assessment of the heroic labor of the people, and of the significance of the work they did. The Lenin Prize for 1958 was awarded to a group of its direct and most active participants. The recipients included N. N. Isanin (from TsKB-16), I. S. Bakhtin (from Plant No 402), I.V.Popkov and P.V.Novozhilov (from OKB-1), V. P. Finogeyev (from NII-885), V. F. Pechurin, V. P. Arefyev and P. M. Zelentsov (from NII-49), and V. P. Makeyev and N.A.Semikhatov (from new organizations that helped create series-manufactured missiles and introduce the weapons into the fleet).

The bureau's designs included the conversion of six Zulu-class attack submarines to launch Scud missiles; this work led to the design of the Golf-class ballistic submarine. The bureau then initiated development of the advanced nuclear propelled Project 661 [Papa SSGN]. In 1970 the Buruea was assigned deep-diving vessels previously under development at TskB-18. Under the leadership of N. N. Isanin, in subsequent years the TsKB-16 developed another six classes of missile submarines, used to test four missile systems, and it conducted the first experimental launching of a missile from beneath the water, and unique tests on a ballistic missile intended against naval targets.

On July 1, 1966, by the order of the minister of the shipbuilding industry TsKB-16 was renamed to the Central Design Bureau Volna (TsPB Volna). February 23, 1974 by order of the Minister of the shipbuilding industry SPMBM and TsPB Volna merged into one bureau - SPMBM Malakhit.

After the merger of the two bureaus, the collective was reorganized and its further history is inextricably linked with the design and creation of both submarine nuclear ships and surface ships, ships and other structures. The unique history of the bureau is further reflected in other sections devoted to the creation of submarines of the first and second generation, rocket stands and deep-water technical means.

Join the mailing list

Page last modified: 30-07-2019 18:46:01 ZULU