Special Marine Engineering Design Bureau "Malakhit" Design Bureau SKB-143 St. Petersburg Marine Engineering Bureau ul. Frunze, 18 St. Petersburg 196135 Russia
Malakhit [Malachite] is one of the leading firms in Russian underwater shipbuilding. Malachite's scientists and engineers built the first Soviet nuclear submarine, the Leninsky Komsomol. The Malakhit Design Bureau was created in 1948 for developing submarines with energy sources independent of atmospheric oxygen. Such a submarine (Design Project 617) was created and tested. A government decree came out in 1952 on creating a submarine with an atomic engine, and the design bureau was completely reorganized for this task. Design work on the NOVEMBER class submarines was initially assigned to the SKB-143 Volna Design Bureau under Chief Designer V.N. Peregudov.
In the late 1950's, when the nuclear powered submarine program had been expanded substantially, a portion of the work was transferred from it to the Rubin Central Design Bureau. In 1974, TsKB-18 [TsKB-16?] and SKB-143 merged to form the present St. Petersburg Malachite Marine Engineering Bureau. Malachite is a large scale systems designer and integrator with a lot of expertise in submarine, submersible, and underwater work systems design and fabrication. The firm has ties into a network of other organizations that can participate in marine system design and fabrication.
The firm is now participating in the defense conversion program and is interested in making its capabilities available to the world market. A systems design house that partners with other organizations that develop subsystems (acoustics and electronics design subsystems, for example), Malachite has experience in the design and fabrication of several different types of submarines, submersibles, and underwater work mechanisms.
During the Cold War, the combat effectiveness of submarines needed to be dramatically increased. To this end, a single surface/underwater propulsion unit was developed. Since its foundation, the bureau led by Chief and Chief Designer Engineer Captain 1st Rank Alexei Antipin was involved in the development of the Project 617 submarine powered by a steam-gas turbine plant using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizer. Its construction began in 1951, but two years later the further work, part of the bureau’s personnel and all documentation for the project were transferred to CDB-18 (now the Rubin Central Design Bureau of Marine Engineering). The boat was commissioned in 1956. In 1947, a government decree of the USSR was issued, which ordered the Ministry of Shipbuilding Industry to create a Special Design Bureau in Germany, headed by A. A. Antipin. The SKB was supposed to collect a drawing of ships, samples of naval weapons, including the restoration of technical documentation for the steam and gas turbine installation of Walter. In this SKB worked as deputy doctor Friedrich Stateshny Walter. Stated, a half-German, led a German technical team that worked in Blankenburg. By 1947, with the help of the State, not only the design of the XXVIW series boat and its power plant was restored, but some large fragments of the Walter power plant, including the combined-cycle turbine and the Lysholm screw compressor, were found at various factories.
On March 31, 1948 Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 3669cc and pursuant to it by order of the Ministry of Shipbuilding Industry No. 00164 dated April 7, 1948, a special design bureau No. 143 (SKB-143) was organized as part of the V Main Department of SMEs.
The term “special” in the name of the bureau underlined that it was created to solve extraordinary, specific, target tasks, such as “designing and testing new power plants (such as steam and gas turbines) for submarines, as well as designing high-speed submarines with power plants of this type (PL Project 617) ”. Alexey Alexandrovich Antipin was appointed the Head of the Bureau and the Chief Designer of the 617 submarine of the Project 617 submarine.
To ensure the performance of work related to the steam and turbine installation (PSTU), the entire research and energy department, headed by its chief B. D. Zlatopolsky, was transferred from Central Research Institute-45 to SKB-143. In parallel with it, German specialists who arrived from Germany also worked on PSTU. Along with the design departments, the Bureau created research and development departments, test bench services and a special chemical laboratory. All this allowed to turn the Bureau into a comprehensive research and development and design organization.
The activity of the Bureau was carried out in the following directions: restoration of PSTU with all auxiliary mechanisms and related equipment; design studies on various power plant options with a “single engine” and the development of a pre-draft project of a submarine project 617. In 1949, the SKB-143 team developed draft designs and technical projects of the Submarine Project 617, and in 1950 - working drawings.
Simultaneously with the design of the submarine, great work was carried out on the creation, installation and commissioning of the stand for testing the power plant on the ship. Particular attention was paid to the development of conditions and means related to the safety of the use and storage of the oxidizer fuel - low-water hydrogen peroxide, conventionally called product 030.
According to the results of the design, a two-body ship with a displacement of about 1000 tons was formed. Eight tanks of the main ballast, fuel tanks and permeable fences with hydrogen peroxide reserve were located in the space between the sides. The power equipment included a diesel-electric installation according to a scheme typical for diesel submarines, and a PSTU operating on one line of a propeller shaft. For the first time on the domestic submarine, the power of the submersible installation reached a value of 7250 hp. on one shaft. PSTU was designed to provide underwater travel at high speeds (10 - 20 kt), and DEU - for running modes. According to the design documentation developed by the Bureau, the construction of the submarine began at plant No. 196 (Novo-Admiralteysky Zavod, now the FSUE “Admiralty Shipyards”).
On February 5, 1951 the submarine was laid on the slipway, launched on February 5, 1952; from June 16, 1952 mooring began, and then sea trials. In accordance with the order of SME No. 00133 of February 18, 1953, due to the need to organize work on the creation of the first national nuclear submarine (APL), all work on the Submarine Project 617, as well as scientific research related to this project, together with a booth were transferred to CDB-18. The specialists involved in this project were also transferred to CDB-18. All further work to ensure running and state tests, as well as trial operation of the submarine Project 617 was performed by the TsKB-18 team.
According to the order of the Minister of the shipbuilding industry, I. I. Nosenko, No. 53 / K, dated February 18, 1953, A.A.Antipin was dismissed from the post of the head of SKB-143 and transferred to TsKB-18 to the position of chief designer of the submarine pr. 617. After the transfer in TsKB-18 works on the submarine of pr. 617 in SKB-143 there were 64 engineering personnel left.
The boat of the project 617 had a normal displacement of 950 tons, an immersion depth of 200 m, a submarine speed under PSTU — 20 kt, under a HED — 9.3 kt, autonomy — 45 days. Armament torpedo: nasal torpedo tubes (TA) - 6 units; 533-mm torpedoes - 12 units. The range (underwater) with a full speed under Perm State Technical University is 120 miles, a speed of 14.2 knots under Perm State Technical University - 198 miles, and under the RDP with a speed of 5-8 knots - 8000 miles.
After completion of the sea trials on April 21, 1955, the boat was presented for state trials, which ended on March 20, 1956 and on the same day it was transferred to trial operation as part of the Navy. The acceptance statement of the State Commission noted: "over a wide range of high submarine speeds and long-range distances with these speeds, the submarine is unparalleled in the domestic fleet, which greatly expands the tactical capabilities of the combat use of submarines of this type."
The creation of a high-speed submarine of the project 617 with a steam-turbine installation operating underwater with the use of hydrogen peroxide made it possible to take a fresh look at the problems of long-term scuba diving and had a definite influence on all subsequent work in the country to create nuclear submarines.
On September 9, 1952, the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 4098-1616 was signed, signed by I. V. Stalin, “On Design and Construction of Object 627”, and essentially on the deployment of work on the creation of the first domestic nuclear submarine, which was entrusted to the SKB -143.
On February 18, 1953, in accordance with the order of SME No. 00133 “On the transfer of work from SKB-143 to TsKB-18,” all work on the submarine of Project 617, as well as scientific research related to this project, along with the stand, were transferred to TsKB- 18. The engineering, technical and design staff engaged in this project, the German specialists, and the special commandant's office were also transferred to TsKB-18.
On February 18, 1953, according to the order of the Minister of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises I. I. Nosenko, No. 53 / K, Vladimir Nikolaevich Peregudov was appointed head of SKB-143 and chief designer of the nuclear submarine of project 627, and A.A. Antipin was dismissed of the position of head of SKB-143 and transferred in TsKB-18 for the position of chief designer of a submarine of the project 617.
The creation of the first nuclear submarine of the project 627 was a turning point in the submarine industry in the country. For the first time, submarines have become truly underwater, because they could be underwater for up to 3 months. Until now, the submarines were “diving” and could not be submerged for a long time.
All diesel-electric submarines and submarines with a "single engine" had the opportunity only a few hours to be submerged. But the greatest merit of the submarine of the project 627 was that it was completely innovative and without borrowing any circuit design, hull shape, power plant, speed, weapons, etc. from other submarines. For example, some diesel-electric submarines, designed by other design bureaus, relied on the experience of creating German and Italian submarines. Moreover, even the first US Nautilus submarine on architecture was created using the German submarine XXI series. It is from the first nuclear submarine of the Soviet Union that the birth of a submarine fleet that does not have borders in reaching and destroying an aggressor anywhere in the world’s ocean can be considered. Only one design bureau in the USSR could solve this problem.
In March 1953, SKB-143 began developing a draft design for a cruiser torpedo submarine of Project 627 under the leadership of Chief Designer VN Peregudov. When developing the project, the materials were taken as a basis for the pre-sketch study done by the group of V.N. Peregudov. Development of pre-sketch, conceptual, and later technical projects and related equipment was carried out without the participation of representatives of the Navy.
On October 31, 1953, the preliminary design of a nuclear submarine with a T-15 super-power steam-gas torpedo (diameter 1,550 mm, length up to 23.5 m, range of 40-50 km) equipped with a nuclear warhead was made. In the final version of the project submarine 627 torpedo T-15 was removed, and instead it placed eight 533-mm TA with a total ammunition load of 20 torpedoes. For the first time in domestic practice, shooting was provided at depths of up to 100 meters.
In March 1954, the production of working drawings was started and completed in July 1955. September 24, 1955 at the Northern Machine-Building Plant (JSC PO Sevmash) a solemn ceremony was held for laying the nuclear submarine of Project 627, which received tactical number K-3. August 13, 1956 laid on the stocks of the head of the submarine of the project 627A.
On April 1, 1966, by the order of the Minister of the shipbuilding industry, a new name, SKB-143, was introduced - the All-Union Design and Assembly Bureau for Mechanical Engineering (SPMBM).
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