Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi
A Bylorussian Soviet aircraft constructor and designer, Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi [July 22, 1895 – September 15, 1975] was one of the creators of Russian reactive and supersonic aviation and the founder of the famous Sukhoi Design Bureau (OKB Sukhoi).
Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi was born into the ordinary Russian family of a school teacher on 22 July 1895 in a small village near the city of Vitebsk in the western part of the Russian Empire (now modern Belarus). He attended the Gomel Gymnasium from 1905 to 1914.
During this time the future aircraft constructor and designer saw his first airplane - a “Farman” biplane. “I was walking with my friends from the gymnasium and suddenly an airplane flew over our heads. It was so unexpected, amazing and breathtaking! Not a bird but a real man was flying over us!” Pavel Sukhoi recalled later. After that first sighting, he developed a great interest in constructing models of airplanes and sailplanes.
After graduating from the gymnasium in 1915 with a silver medal, in September 1914 he moved to Moscow, entered the Mathematics Faculty of the Imperial Moscow University (now Moscow State University. MV Lomonosov). After studying the year, he entered the Imperial Moscow Technical School (IMTU, now Moscow State Technical University named after NE Bauman). In 1916 he was drafted into the army, was trained in the school of ensigns, took part in Great War. He was demobilized in 1920 due to health related problems [the chronology here is evidently defective]. In March 1918, he returned to Moscow, but was unable to continue classes at IMTU, whose work was temporarily suspended. In this connection, he left in November 1918 to teach mathematics to the city of Luninets in Western Belarus.
From May 1919 to 1920 he was a teacher of mathematics at a school for railway children in Gomel (Belorussian SSR), which was headed by his father. His talent stood out among others. He was noticed by Andrey Tupolev, a pioneer of Soviet aircraft design and one of the most famous aircraft constructors. In 1920, he continued his studies at the Moscow Higher Technical School (a new name for IMTU), which he graduated in 1925, having defended his graduation project on the theme "Single fighter with a motor of 300 horsepower." The work was prepared under the guidance of aircraft designer Andrei Tupolev. He was taken into employment by TsAGI (The Central Aero Hydrodynamic Institute), which was developing the most cutting-edge aircraft technologies of the time. His first task in Tupolev’s group was the development of the now world famous heavy bombers TB-1 and TB-3.
TsAGI was developing the most cutting-edge aircraft technologies of the time. From October 1930 to May 1932 he was head of the brigade number 4 AGOS TsAGI. His first task in Tupolev’s group was the development of the now world famous heavy bombers TB-1 and TB-3. From May 1932 to May 1936 he was head of the brigade number 3 ("Light aircraft") of the design department of experimental aircraft construction (COSOC) TsAGI. In May 1936, he became deputy head of the experimental design bureau (OKB) of the Plant of Experimental Structures (ZOK) of TsAGI.
During the mid 1930s Pavel Sukhoi continued working under Tupolev’s command. He was appointed executive supervisor of the ANT-25 project, a Soviet experimental long-range aircraft. The airplane later became a legend setting numerous world records for uninterrupted long distance flights. Out of this project also came the ANT-37 “Motherland,” the first Soviet long-range bomber. Sukhoi’s design group also developed a number of other projects, including the BB-1 short-range bomber. The aircraft had an easy control system, accelerated upwards much faster than its competitors, had great maneuverability and proved to be a big success.
In 1939, KOSOS and ZOK were separated from TsAGI and transferred to Kharkov at the aircraft factory 135. On 29 July 1939 Pavel Sukhoi was appointed as head of the newly emerged KB (Design Bureau) OKB-135 (Kharkov). September 13, 1940 he received the degree of doctor of technical sciences. From April 1940 to November 1949, he was the chief designer of the design bureau of the aircraft factory 289, based on a number of enterprises in Moscow and the Moscow region. From November 1940, he also held the position of director of these enterprises.
The bureau’s first task was to further develop the BB-1 project, which later became known as the Su-2. It was the first model of almost a hundred that would be developed by the world famous OKB Sukhoi (Sukhoi Design Bureau).
The new Soviet planes originated in a simple two-story building where the designers worked upstairs and the workshops were laid out below. Together with the team of the Design Bureau, which had been given a stand-alone status, PO Sukhoi was relocated to production aircraft plant No 135 in Kharkov.
In 1940, the Su-2 light bomber went into mass production, a seemingly unexceptional short-range aircraft but with some crucial advantages over rival models: The cockpit’s design offered a wider field of vision to the pilot, while the location of the bomb load helped to increase speed. More than 900 units were built, which led to the workshop receiving the status of an individual production unit. The armored Su-6 and Su-8 were built on the basis of the Su-2, as well as the Su-1 high-altitude fighter which was fitted with a 20-mm auto-cannon.
The BB-1 prototype was used to develop different models of bombers, attack planes and destroyers such as the Su-4 and the Su-6. These aircraft made a large contribution to the Russian victory in the Great Patriotic War. In 1943 Sukhoi received the USSR State Prize for his role in the development of the Su-6 bomber.
1945 was marked with a breakthrough in the aircraft design industry - reactive air engines. Soviet aviation development was concentrated on jet aircraft, and the Sukhoi design bureau was again at the forefront of the work, using this new technology to produce the Su-9, -11, -13, -15 and Su-17 models. These also served as a test platform for the first Soviet pilot ejection systems with parachute braking.
OKB Sukhoi developed the revolutionary Su-9 subsonic fighter, powered by two turbo reactive engines. The aircraft had a number of innovative systems such as a brake parachute for reducing landing runway distances and pilot ejection.
In 1948 OKB Sukhoi and its leading designer constructed the Su-15 subsonic interceptor. It could reach over 1000 km/h and also had a number of innovative systems such as an airtight cabin. But due to an accident further constriction of the airplane was ceased. However, none of the immediate post-war Sukhoi models made it into mass production, and an the Su-17 crash in 1949 brought a halt in development followed by the temporary closure of the design bureau.
, not to be resurrected till May 1953 as experimental-design bureau EDB-1 MAP, It reopened in 1953 and immediately set about creating fundamentally new supersonic aircraft that incorporated either swept or triangular wing designs.
In 1948 OKB Sukhoi and its leading designer constructed the Su-15 subsonic interceptor. It could reach almost 1030 km/h and also had a number of innovative systems such as an airtight cabin. But due to an accident further constriction of the airplane was ceased. On November 14, 1949 a government's resolution scrapped the Sukhoi Design Bureau after the test flight of an experienced Su-15 interceptor fighter (the same name was later given to another aircraft developed by a team led by Sukhoi in the early 1960s).
In 1949-1953 he worked as chief designer in the design bureau Andrei Tupolev. In 1953-1956 he was the the chief designer, and since 1956 the general designer of the recreated design bureau (in February 1954 the bureau received the number 51 in the USSR Minaviaprom system).
In 1953-1954 Pavel Sukhoi began developing a new platform for a new generation of jet fighters. The result of this work was the S-1 prototype with a turbo reactive engine, a predecessor of a new generation of the Su-7 and the Su-9. It was the first Soviet aircraft to utilize the all-moving tail plane and a translating center body - a movable cone in the air intake for managing airflow to the engine at supersonic speeds.
In 1957 the S-1 was modified and the aircraft entered service as the Su-7 in 1959. The Sukhoi Su-7 was a swept wing turbo reactive engine powered supersonic fighter-bomber and had the NATO designated name “Fitter.” Later an afterburning version was developed and became known as the “Fitter-A.” In service for more than 20 years, it became a dominant power in the air for the Soviet Union and its allies. The Su-7 saw combat with Egypt in the Six Day War in 1967.
The Su-9 was developed at the same time as the Su-7 Fitter. It entered service in 1959. The Sukhoi Su 9 was a single turbo reactive engine powered all-weather missile armed supersonic interceptor and was dubbed “Fishpot” by NATO. On 4 September 1962 a modified Su-9 piloted by Vladimir Ilyshin set a new world record for absolute height at 28,852m (94,658 ft). In November of that same year Ilyushin set several new sustained speed and altitude records in the same aircraft.
Pavel Sukhoi and his design bureau paid much attention to the widening battle and tactical capabilities of developed planes. The Su-7 and the Su-9 had a huge amount of different variants and modifications. Recognizing the limitations of the Su-9 and Su-11 jets Pavel Sukhoi looked to rapidly progressing new technologies and began to focus on the new heavily revised and more capable aircrafts, the Su-15 and the Su-17. These planes were equipped with the most advanced technologies of the time.
Pavel Sukhoi and his OKB, in alliance with TsAGI, worked on variable geometry wing technology. The Su-17 had this revolutionary innovation. It greatly increased the tactical and battle capabilities of attack aircraft. These types of jets were much more reliable, safer, had better maneuverability and a number of other vital advantages. The breakthrough that cemented the Sukhoi team’s place among the leading designers of the age came with the T-4 high-speed reconnaissance, anti-ship and strategic bomber aircraft. Developed from 1962 and now regarded by experts as being 20 years ahead of its time, the aircraft was used to test cutting edge technologies like the welded titanium fuselage and auto-throttle control system.
While the T-4 did not go into mass production, it gave rise to new generations of military aircraft like the Su-24 bomber, which made its maiden flight in 1969. For the first time since the Su-2 a Sukhoi design was mass-produced, becoming the country’s first strike aircraft capable of operating on the battlefield regardless of weather conditions. Six years later the bureau scored another hit with the Su-25 attack bomber, unequalled in its power to destroy armored vehicles. Named the Rook (Grach in Russian) because of its distinctive shape, the model still forms the backbone of Russian military aviation. Meanwhile, the design bureau began work on a fourth-generation fighter to produce the Su-27, which produced the Su-30, Su-32 and Su-33 as offshoots.
The Soviet air construction industry, mainly driven by Pavel Sukhoi, was entering the new era of the supersonic fighter. The result was the Su-24, the Su-25 and the Su-27 Flanker. The Su-27 is still in service today. The aircraft most often flies air superiority missions but is able to perform almost all combat operations as well.
Overall more than 50 original aircraft constructions were developed by Pavel Sukhoi. More than 30 of them were assembled. Took part in the design of the ANT-3 Proletary aircraft (first flight in 1925), TB-1 (1925), PS-9 (1929), TB-3 (1930), R-7 (1930). Under the general leadership of Andrei Tupolev, Sukhoi worked on fighters I-4 (1927), I-14 (1933), long-range bomber DB-2 (1935), ANT-25 aircraft (RD, Rekord Range, 1933) and ANT-37 - bis "Motherland" (1938). He took part in the competitive development of the aircraft under the code "Ivanov" - the project ended with the creation of a combat multipurpose Su-2 / BB-1 aircraft (1937). After World War II, under the leadership of Pavel Sukhoi, a number of serial jet combat vehicles were developed: supersonic Su-7 fighter (1955), Su-9 (1957) interceptor fighters, Su-11 (1958), Su-15 (1962), fighter- Su-17 bomber (1966), front bomber with variable sweep of the wing of the Su-24 (1970), attack aircraft Su-25 (1975) and others. Led the beginning of the development of the fourth-generation fighter Su-27 (1977). Numerous world records were set by the Su aircrafts. For his achievements in aviation Pavel Sikhoi was awarded with the Lenin Prize, two State Prizes and the honorary title of Hero of Socialist Labor.
Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi died on 15 September 1975, and was buried at the Novodevichy cemetery in Moscow. Twice Hero of Socialist Labor (1957, 1965), winner of the Leninist (1968), Stalinist (1943) and State (1975) awards. Cavalier of the three Orders of Lenin (1945, 1957, 1975), the Order of the October Revolution, the Red Banner of Labor (1938), the Red Star (1933) and others. Awarded a gold medal to them. A.N. Tupolev number 001 (1975, posthumously).
He was married to Sophia Feliksovna Sukhoi (nee Tenchinskaya, 1895-1982). Children - Irina (1925-2009) and Dmitry (1932-2000). In March 1977, the name of Pavel Sukhoi was assigned to the design bureau in which he worked (now the branch of PJSC “Company“ Sukhoi ”“ Sukhoi OKB ”). In December of the same year, a monument to an aircraft designer in Gomel was opened. The streets in Moscow were named after him Vitebsk, Gomel, as well as a school in the town of Glubokoe, where the P.O. Sukhoi Museum was established in 1985 and the Su-17M monument aircraft were installed. 1947-1965.In 1995, in connection with the 100th anniversary of the birth of Pavel Sukhoi, his name was given about Gomel State Technical University (Belarus).
Nowadays the Sukhoi Company is Russia’s major aircraft engineering holding. The company is currently developing Russia’s fifth generation jet fighter. The Sukhoi Su-47 Berkut (Golden Eagle), NATO name “Firkin,” is a prototype of future aircraft. One of its distinguishing features is a forward swept wing. Apart from the development of military aircraft, the Sukhoi Company is also the manufacturer of a civilian regional airliner known as the Sukhoi Superjet 100, which has been flying since 19 May 2008.
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