OKB Sukhoi History - Early Cold War
In 1935, the TsAGI brigade No. 3 of the TSAGI COCOS began work on the project “Ivanov” or “Stalin's task” (NW), which became a kind of “springboard” for the new design team. The first prototype flew in August 1937. According to the test results, the NW was recommended for mass production and for the use of the Red Army air force as a light bomber. By the Government’s Decree of July 29 and by the order of the National Communist Party of Ukraine of August 4, 1939, Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi was appointed Chief Designer of Plant No. 135, and part of his design team was also transferred there. The main task for the new design bureau is the launch into serial production of the NW, under the designation BB-1, and the development of its modifications. Besides, Sukhoi Design Bureau was supposed to perform work on the I-135 single-seat fighter cannon and single-engine single-engine armored attack aircraft (development of the BB-1). In December 1940, all aircraft OKB P.O. Sukhoi received new designations, by the name of the Chief Designer: BB-1 - Su-2; I-135 - Su-1, and OSSh - Su-6. For the creation of the latter in 1943, Pavel Osipovich was awarded the Stalin Prize I degree.
In the first decade of its existence, the KB periodically changed its location. Established in Kharkov in 1939 (Plant 135), in 1940 it moved to Plant 289 near Moscow Podlíkki, and in 1941 evacuated to the city of Molotov (Perm), where it merged with the Plant 135 evacuated to the same place. production and the number 289, and in 1943 reevakuiruyutsya in the suburbs, but now in Tushino, to the site of the former plant 464. In 1945, the plant 289 was combined with the Moscow plant 134, under the general number 134. Despite all the difficulties associated with moving production and reorganization, the team of OKB P.O. Sukhoi continued work on the creation of new types of aircraft.
In addition to the first aircraft: Su-2, Su-1, Su-3 and Su-6 were designed, built and tested: a twin twin-engine armored attack aircraft Su-8; experimental fighter with a combined power unit Su-5; experimental fighter with a rocket booster Su-7; Su-12 reconnaissance artillery spotter; UTB-2 training bomber and modification of the Er-2 long-range bomber. In addition, there were still a number of projects not implemented in the metal.
Especially worth mentioning are the OKB jets: Su-9, Su-11, Su-15, Su-17 fighters and Su-10 bomber, created in 1944-49. It was in 1944, the team P.O. Sukhoi began work on a fighter with two S-18 turbojet engines, designed by A.M. Lyulki, but in February 1946 a decision was issued by the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR on the use of the German YuMO-004 engines in the project. The first prototype Su-9 began flight tests in November 1946, and in May 1947, the Su-11 was put to the test. On the Su-9, for the first time, we installed and tested: a pilot's ejection seat; booster mechanism in the control system; powder accelerators for take-off; brake parachute and brake flaps for landing. Since 1946, at the Design Bureau, together with TsAGI, work has been carried out to determine the aerodynamic appearance of an interceptor fighter. In 1947, the conceptual design was completed and in January 1949 it was flown around the Su-15, the tests of which continued until June. In the summer of 1949, the Su-17 was built, in September, taxiing and jogging was performed on it, and in October the plane was ready for flight tests. But on November 14, 1949, the USSR Council of Ministers by its resolution allowed the IAP to eliminate the P.O. Sukhoi, and the aircraft was not tested.
May 14, 1953 P.O. Sukhoi was appointed Chief Designer of the OKB-1. The main task of OKB-1 at that time was to copy the American fighter Saber, but already on August 5, 1953, a new government decree was signed, according to which Sukhoi was assigned to create two completely new types of fighter. Thus, the 1953rd was the year of the revival of the P.O. Sukhoi. Immediately after the release of this “fateful” resolution in the OKB-1 from other related organizations of the IAO, a whole series of its associates in the OKB - 134 reached out to their former leader. Among them were: A.S. Resurrection, N.S. Dubinin, E.A. Ivanov, N.P. Polenov, I.I. Tsebrikov, E.S. Felsner, V.A. Alybin, K.A. Kuryansky and others In November 1953, OKB - 1 transferred the territory of the former plant No. 51 at Khodynskoye Field as a production base. In December 1953, the relocation was fully completed, and from January 1954 the design bureau was officially named “State Union Plant No. 51” (p / i 2325), thus becoming “de jure” the unwitting successor to the glory of the “king of fighters” N.N. Polikarpov.
Since 1954, the Design Bureau fully launched planned work on two new topics, which for the next ten years became the main for the entire design team of the design bureau. During this time, the two main types of aircraft that became the firstborn of the design bureau after its revival were designed, tested, launched into series and put into service:
- front fighter S-1, a prototype of a serial Su-7, on the basis of which, in turn, a whole family of Su-7B fighter-bombers was created. The serial production of these aircraft lasted for more than 15 years, more than 1,800 cars were produced, incl. exported to 9 countries.
- T-3 fighter, a prototype of the Su-9 and Su-11 interceptors, which were also produced in series, exceeding the mark of 1,100 units. Airplanes of this type in the 60s were the most high-speed and high-altitude combat aircraft in the USSR and remained in service with the aircraft of the air defense forces until 1980.
In addition, work began on another new aircraft: by 1965, the OKB had designed and successfully completed the state tests of the T-58 interceptor (Su-15), which continued the development line begun by the Su-9/11 family of vehicles.
All these years The design bureau was in continuous development: new buildings were being built, the capacities of the pilot production, bench and laboratory facilities were increased. The number of the team grew: having renewed its way in 1953 from a mark of 1176 people of the total number, 357 of them were designers, by the beginning of 1965 the plant’s staff numbered 4329 people, incl. 1954 ITR. Thus, there was a clear outpacing growth in the proportion of design personnel.
The path traveled by the KB over the years was by no means "strewn with roses." For the KB team, this was a time of his creative maturity, when it was necessary to constantly and in practice prove his skills and abilities. And rivals were quite eminent and deserved, such as the OKB. Mikoyan and A.S. Yakovlev. And all this happened against the backdrop of a real confrontation to the “likely adversary” represented by leading US aviation companies. KB P.O. Sukhoi passed this path with honor, by the end of which by right took the role of one of the leading design teams of the domestic aviation industry. Participation in the air parade in Tushino: in 1956 - experienced, and after 5 years, already production aircraft P.O. Sukhoi confirmed that the KB team is firmly on its feet.
The year 1965 was marked by the transition of the OKB from GKAT submission back under the patronage of the Ministry of Aviation Industry (MAP), and a year later, from April 30, 1966, Plant No. 51 received a new official name - Kulon Engineering Plant (p / I B-2481). The July 1967 air parade in Domodedovo, for which for the first time new prototype aircraft of the P.O. Sukhoi S-22I and T-58VD.
During the decade from 1965 to 1975, the main efforts of the Design Bureau were focused on 4 main topics. Two of them were a direct continuation of the previously started works:
- on the development of the T-58 interceptor project (Su-15), in which 2 new modifications were added to the initial version of the aircraft, which were successively developed, tested, introduced into the series and put into service;
- to create a new version of the IB Su-7B - with a variable sweep wing. Starting as a purely experimental program, it was continued as a full-scale development of a new aircraft modification. In general, this led to the creation of a new, the largest in the history of the OKB "family" of aircraft - Su-17 fighter-bombers. During the period under review, 4 new modifications of this aircraft were introduced into the series.
An important area of work since the mid-1960s was the development of the draft low-altitude attack aircraft T-58M (T-6). Due to various reasons, in particular, with a high degree of automation and complexity of the integration of heterogeneous systems envisaged for installation on an airplane, work on the T-6 was very long. During these years, the solution of the whole complex of problems associated with its creation involved the resources of all the main departments of the design bureau and pilot production.
Another equally important area of work was the project of the long-range supersonic reconnaissance T-4 rocket carrier. In terms of complexity and volume of constructive-technological tasks that were required to be solved when creating this aircraft, the T-4 had no equal, this was due primarily to the need to develop designs and systems operating under conditions of large, not previously mastered working temperatures. , determined by the given cruising speed M = 3.
Significant assistance from the OKB in the work on this subject was provided by the staff of the KB branch at TMZ, where the construction of experienced aircraft was carried out. During the design of the T-4, new technical solutions were implemented, and research carried out in the Design Bureau, together with related companies, significantly improved the overall “intellectual level” of the industry, creating a certain scientific and technical groundwork for future work. On this background, the result of all this great work looks all the more regrettable, since since 1974, at the insistence of the leadership of the MAP, work on the T-4 was completely curtailed during the flight tests of the first prototype aircraft ... During this period, the design bureau began searching for two new topics:
- designing a light troop attack aircraft T-8;
- creation of a promising fighter of the new generation T-10.
The development of scientific and industrial base continued actively. Under the work on the new theme, it was possible to significantly expand the territory of the plant, and a total of six new buildings were built on new sites, including production and warehouse building (in the future - a new final assembly shop), a new design building and a social building with a dining room. In addition, in an “economic” way, three more buildings of the SK-100 type (a complex stand) and a number of smaller buildings were erected to house the laboratories. In general, this allowed the pilot to retrofit and completely "re-equip" the experimental base of the design bureau.
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