Object 292Object 292 was supposed to be a T-95. Experiental main tank / object for working 152-mm tank gun. The tank was designed CB Kirov Plant (Leningrad, now JSC "Spetsmash") and the Institute of Transmash on the chassis of the T-80 with the installation of a new turret with 152 mm cannon and a new charging mechanism. General Designer - N.S.Popov. Manufacturing experienced tank samples, except for the loading mechanism (not installed later), completed in 1990. The tank tests were conducted Rzhevsky tank firing range in 1991. The tests were deemed successful.
It is possible that the 152-mm gun was a continuation of research on armament prototype tank "Object 477" HKBTM (Kharkov, the second half of the 1980s). Prospective rifled gun 152.4 mm developed CRI "Petrel" (development not brought to the test). The intended use of the increased power of the projectile was to fight with tanks and helicopters.
The design was a characteristic classical Soviet configuration. The hull was welded from rolled sheets with a combined frontal part. Turret with a molded base with hinged frontal and side projections. Feed the niche of the turret is equipped with expelling panels (in the case of ammunition explosion). The fighting compartment constructively could be installed on a standard T-80 tank chassis.
At the end of the 1980s. kirovtsvtsami VNIITransmash and scientists began work, the purpose of which was to study the possibility of equipping the machine gun burst combat the increased power and position in his time "on the shelf" "due to lack of funding. In 1990, the Rzhev range of Leningrad began test fired an experimental sample of the T-80 is equipped with a smoothbore gun caliber of 152.4 mm. At the same time expected to increase the fire power of the tank is more than 1.5 times. The initiator of this work was the Deputy General Designer, twice winner of the State Prize A.K.Dzyavgo. Active participation in R & D professionals took CB-3 Kirov factory (now JSC "Spetsmash"): Head of weapons A.I.Holopov, leading designer Yu.N.Novikov experienced weapons designer M.G.Shklovsky, GS Shpagin A B.Konokotin, N.N.Solovev, N.N.Shein and E.N.Marchenko. They worked gunsmiths of CRI "Petrel" (E.H.Gayninov designer) and designers of the Perm Engineering Plant (VV, Roboz?rov).
When deciding on the work of the main armament contentious issue was the type of weapon. Supporters rifled gun was not found. We made a decision to order a smoothbore 152.4 mm caliber gun with the possibility of it instead of D-81 in the turret of a tank T-80. Order received the director of "Petrel" N.N.Hudkov Institute. Designers Institute carried out the work efficiently and on time. Was vypushena documentation loading mechanism, completion and installation of the turret guns. Tank received index "Object 292". Thus, 152.4-mm cannon PL-83 high chrome barrel ballistics and designed and manufactured in CRI "Petrel" (Nizhny Novgorod). Chrome bezezhektsionnogo device made it possible to increase the pressure krepernoe above 7000 kg / cm. Interestingly, according to the original plan to be used in the gun bolt with a vertical wedge semi implement platoon with reel, as well as to establish a gas-dynamic valve overlapping bore liner after extraction. Later, however, a number of proposed technical solutions has been revised.
The basis of the experimental car "object 292" served as the serial T-80VV. Under the 152.4-mm cannon in the KB-3 designed the turret proper, which is the history of touch alone. Izhora Leningrad plant, which was concluded an agreement on the production of a new turret, abandoned this urgent work, referring to the load of its serial production of equipment (as it turned out, the plant could take on this order, but the timing correction condition). The agreement with VNIITransmash to supply the tank with a new high-power gun cracked at the seams. What to do? The CB-3 welded turret of the original structure was designed under the direction of N.N.Solovev A.I.Holopova and its manufacturer have identified Zhdanovsky Transport Mechanical Engineering Plant (Mariupol, Ukraine). The corresponding agreement was signed between the plant and the Research Institute of Steel. However, this work was delayed.
Then it was decided to modify the serial turret tank. It instructed Yu.N.Novikovu, weapons designer department KB-3. standard turret design has undergone some significant changes. In the area of new loopholes welded cast, under the modified dimensions of 152.4 mm mm gun changed the geometry of the turret, made spetsnishi, increased weight of the turret installation of goods to a value corresponding to the new fighting compartment. Finalization of the serial turret completed in Gear Shop MX-8 Kirov plant, and racetracks - in the shop on the MX-18 turning machines with CNC. Increasing the weight of the turret and the recoil force required not just rework the turret, and in fact, the creation of a new design. Invaluable role in this belongs to the scientists and experts VNIITransmash V.N.Lukyanovu, V.M.Kolesnikovu and I.K.Selifonovu. Special contribution to the development of new devices sold by the meter circuit (and, in serial dimensions) owned by a person skilled VNIITransmash VS, Galitsky. Among the proposed solutions can be called terroidalnye treadmills and square sleeve of fenolona, with dividers. VNIITransmash promptly set phenyl balls.
The resulting construct overhead characterized by a whole set of new features. New treadmills do not require the processing of high-frequency currents and subsequent time-consuming changes; significantly increased strength in the shelling; It was not such backlash as serial balls, and therefore - is not subject to question the likelihood of a stabilizer improved performance, increased accuracy at banks (on the horizontal deviation). Became obsolete traditional abundant lubrication, overhead work program now provides the bisulfate lubrication. In fairness, we note that in Kharkiv at the factory to them. Malyshev, also experienced such an experienced shoulder straps, with its advantages have been confirmed and enhanced properties. You can compare the new overhead diagram with foreign developments in the US and Germany. "Wire" treadmills with small rollers to compensate for kickbacks from the impact of efforts to 100-115 tons, were difficult compared with 152.4-mm cannon, besides, we have the figures for the force rollback amounted 120-130 tons, and the value rollback - 340 mm. And the double-row shoulder straps in three rings on the "Abrams" (and the top ring - detachable) - expensive and time consuming.
To solve a number of problems in implementing the new tools as standard turret allowed and other innovative discoveries. It was very important to use in the gun instead of a piston valve V, as the latter when opening wedge dropped backwater. The original solution was the introduction of purge air, replacing the ejector hole cleaning circuit after the shot. Note that Mariupol mechanical engineers still did experimental turret. It was found written in chalk phrase: Let us easily order more!
But back to the tank tests with 152.4-mm cannon. In the course of testing and research were carried out a series of shots. Several shots on Rzhevka of "Object 292" made by written-off T-72 tanks. As recalled Holopov Alexander, who took part in the inspection of the car after the shooting, "the turret had a few breaks, and by the powerful impact of the projectile broke down from their mounts instruments and items of equipment in the fighting compartment of T-72." Overall, the results of these tests are "object 292" were quite encouraging, including the elements of the gun. The resulting increased ballistic performance for a shot pulse of more than 1.5 times higher than for regular guns 2A46M-1 caliber 125 mm. Despite this, test fired shown high stability of the chassis of T-80BV and reliability of all its components. The main thing - the rollback 152.4 mm gun remained on 2A46M1 level. The required standards for acceleration and stress in the workplace anti-shock performance of the crew and equipment were met.
It became clear that the idea of boosting the power of the gun in the T-80 is a viable and does not cause any doubts. It was possible at times to increase the power of artillery weapons of the domestic tank, show and prove the theory in practice the reality and prospects of such a decision. There is no doubt that this work was, in fact, a kind of a breakthrough leap in increasing the power of the most important components of the tank - weapons. Referring back to the memories of AK Dzyavgo: Made object. On Rzhevsky range tested work tools and the impact a shot at the crew and the tank. The conclusion was positive. But the customer has not shown interest in this work. The collapse of the USSR, the flirtation with NATO, the ranking of arms, hobby strategy contactless War arguments about the nature of future wars, the fashion for international cooperation to create military equipment do their thing - the power of the country's erstwhile tank falls. Although Russian weapons Army troops formally adopted tank support combat vehicle (BMPT), it is still the best support of the tank will be to implement the existing large potential weapons capabilities to further enhance its combat performance. "
Despite this, the history of the installation of high-power guns in a production tank ended on a sad note. October 22, 2007 JSC "Spetsmash" experts have shipped "Object 292" in Kubinka outside Moscow, the Military History Museum of armored vehicles, where it is now.
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