55ZH6 "Nebo-U" / 55G6UM Nebo-UM Niobium / TALL RACK
Mobile multi-band radar complex
The Sky-U radar is intended for detecting, measuring the coordinates and tracking air targets of various categories from aircraft to cruise and guided missiles, including small hypersonic, ballistic and subtle missiles using stealth technologies at 600 km. The station also provides for the determination of the nationality of air facilities and the direction finding of active jammers. At the same time, its work can be carried out automatically, autonomously and as part of an association management system.
"Sky-U radar" entered the association in the framework of the state defense order. Its high-quality execution in the shortest possible time allowed the complex to re-equip the air defense system of the Western Military District, thereby creating a continuous radar field and ensuring one-hundred percent control of the airspace in the area of responsibility.
Carlo Kopp noted in 2010 that the largest and longest ranging VHF-band radar now in production is the NNIIRT 55Zh6 Nebo U or Tall Rack, which has been integrated with the SA–21 and is being deployed around Moscow. The size of this radar denies it mobility. It has a characteristic inverted T antenna system and provides very accurate height finding capability.
The air defense division of the Voronezh region received the newest radar station "Sky-UM", the press service of the Western Military District (ZVO) reported 26 November 2018. The complex will control the airspace in the southern part of Central Russia. Sky-UM is a unique three-coordinate station capable of detecting airplanes, helicopters, cruise and ballistic missiles at a range of up to 600 km.
The Russian air defense division stationed in the Voronezh region received a three-coordinate radar station of the new generation “Sky-UM” (55G6UM “Niobium”). It is noted that the air defense complex will increase the combat capabilities of the troops to control the airspace of southern Central Russia. By the end of 2019, 11 Sky-UM were handed over to air defense compounds. The deliveries of Neba-UM began in 2015. This radar is the most advanced radar complex of the same name family. It differs from the predecessors of “Sky-UM” by the changed composition of the equipment on a more advanced element base.
Radar family "Sky" refers to the type of interspecific mobile stations of high and medium altitudes. They are designed to detect and support hypersonic and aerodynamic purposes, including small and subtle (built using stealth technology). This includes combat blocks of ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, airplanes, helicopters and UAVs. The equipment of the station allows detecting the target, determine its coordinates and nationality and transmit information to the command center or anti-aircraft complexes. In addition, it is possible to find the sources of interference and determine their location.
Sky-UM is capable of tracking up to 200 targets simultaneously at a distance of 10 to 600 km and at an altitude of up to 80 km. The maximum speed of tracked objects can reach almost Mach 8 (about 8000 km / h). The 55Zh6UM antenna mast device is dual-band, that is, consists of two radars. The first uses the meter range to establish a target range, the second works in the decimeter range to determine its height and refine other coordinates. The information obtained is combined with the help of special automated equipment. Thus, the calculation of the radar gets a single picture of the state of the air situation.
In addition to antennas, the “Sky-UM” includes a hardware cabin, an autonomous power supply system (diesel power station), a remote device (for remote control) and several vehicles (up to six units). The main element of the radar - antenna-mast device - made on three semi-trailers on the chassis BAZ-6909-015.
The advantages of "Sky-UM" include reducing the number of transport units, increasing the accuracy of determining the coordinates, increased resistance to active interference, an effective system for selecting moving targets, improved documentation of radar and control data, as well as the route information processing method, which is currently considered the most prompt and reliable. In addition, "Sky-UM" is more reliable and simple in mass production complex. According to the state procurement website, the cost of one set of radar stations is about 394 million rubles.
The development of the first model of the “Nebo” family began in 1986 within the walls of the Gorky (Nizhny Novgorod) Radio Engineering Research Institute (NIIIRT) under the guidance of the famous designer Alexander Zachepitsky. In 1992, the 55ZH6U radar was tested at the Kapustin Yar test site (Astrakhan region). The serial production of the stations was launched in 1994. Nizhny Novgorod scientists almost continuously improved their offspring. In 1995, they presented the Ministry of Defense radar complex "Sky-U". At its base in 2010, development work was launched on the Niobium project.
The main advantage of “Sky-U” is a phased array antenna with a digital data processing system. This innovation has improved the accuracy of measuring the height of targets and reduce the "dead zone". In addition, a high degree of automation has extremely simplified the work of the operator.
The advantages of the entire 55Zh6 family include increased noise immunity, excellent transport vehicle throughput, the availability of hydraulic systems for coiling and deploying antenna arrays, the ability to use GLONASS and GPS navigation systems, and the cable-free connection between modules and equipment. According to the experts of JSC Concern EKR Almaz-Antey (which includes NIIRT), "Sky" has no analogs in the world. These unique radars are the only mobile means of electronic reconnaissance capable of performing the functions of a missile attack warning system (SPRN).
The Nebo family is actually a universal station that can both perform the functions of an early warning missile system and keep a watch on the radio engineering forces. These stations are capable of detecting a threat in near space and at low altitudes.
According to the expert, various modifications of "Heaven" are located in all military districts of Russia. In early 2018, the Sky-M station was relocated to the Crimea. Knutov is confident that unique Nizhny Novgorod radar stations are capable of successfully performing tasks both around the perimeter of Russian territory and in the interior of the country. Of course, Sky is inferior in power to stations like Daryal and Voronezh. However, the advantage of these complexes is that they can be quickly deployed to enhance the air defense of any strategic direction. For example, now the protection of our arctic and northeastern regions has acquired special urgency.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|