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Air Launched Missiles

After the end of the Great Patriotic War, the Allies conducted a series of experiments on German samples. In the USSR, the Chelomey design bureau based on the Fi-103 developed a number of missiles: 10X, 14X, 16X, which did not leave the prototype stage. Developing the Hs 293, KB-2 of the Ministry of the USSR has developed the "Naval Air torpedo" Ramtha-1400 Pike, which is due to low precision in the arms was not adopted, although served as a basis for a series of more sophisticated missiles KSSCH. In the US, on the basis of the captured Fi-103, Republic developed the JB-2 missile, which, despite its low precision, was produced in the quantity of about 1,400 pieces.

With the onset of the Cold War, the development of air-to-surface missiles in the USSR and the US went in different directions. Because of the Soviet Union's lack of a powerful fleet, Soviet designers primarily developed anti-ship missiles capable of breaking through a security warrant against the aircraft carrier of a likely enemy. In the early 50's, the first anti-ship missile "KS" was equipped with a semi-active radar homing system. It was followed by more advanced K-10S with a turbojet engine and a series of rockets of the DAC: DAC, KSR-2, KSR-5 with a liquid rocket engine, equipped with an active radar guidance system, as well as a rocket KSR-11 with a passive radar targeting system, which was intended to destroy ships with radars operating.

For a long time the concept of "omnipotence" of nuclear weapons dominated the Soviet Union, but the successes of the use of American tactical "air-to-surface" missiles in Vietnam made it necessary to pay attention to the development of precision-guided systems for defending front-line aviation. In the mid-1960s, the Zvezda Design Bureau developed the X-23 rocket on the basis of the RS-1U spent air-to-air missilewith radio command guidance system. However, due to the difficulty in bringing the guidance system into operation, the development of the missile was delayed. As an intermediate solution for the armament in 1968, the X-66 missile was adopted with a radio beam guidance. The X-23 missile entered service in the USSR Air Force only in 1974.

Due to the unsatisfactory characteristics of the Kh-28 missile of the Soviet front-line aviation, another, more reliable and compact anti-radar missile was required. Taking the tactical X-25 for the base, the designers developed the X-27PS missile , which was adopted in 1980. At the same time, a more powerful anti-radar missile was being developed, which could be struck at the latest at that time and promising US air defense systems, including the Patriot missile system, without entering the zone of their fire. In 1980, the X-58 missile was adopted, it was twice heavier than the X-27PS and had three times the maximum launch range.

In 1978, the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a decree on the development of tactical missiles of modular design. The base for the new missile, adopted in 1981 under the designation X-25M, was the proven X-25 with improvements to the X-27PS missile. However, in the rockets of this family, the warhead had a mass of about 100-150 kg, which was considered insufficient to destroy strong structures, so more powerful X-29 missiles with a warhead weighing 317 kg were developed and in 1980.

Improvement of US air defense systems in the 1970s and 1980s required the creation of a new generation of Soviet anti-ship missiles, one of the requirements for new missiles being the possibility of their installation on various carriers: ships, aircraft and coastal installations. As a result, by the early 1990s, a number of universal missile launchers were built in the USSR with a straight-flow air-jet engine providing high speed of flight. The first was a relatively powerful and heavy X-41 missile designed to engage ships and ships with a displacement of up to 20,000 tons. It was followed by the missile of the NPO "Machine Building" X-61 and the 3M54 missile missile "Novator", which is part of the Kalibr-A missile aviation complex (Club-A ). The Caliber-A complex also includes a missile for striking ground targets 3M14.

Despite the creation of relatively powerful high-speed anti-ship missiles, it was considered necessary in the USSR to develop a relatively light subsonic anti-ship missile, analogous to the American AGM-84. The Kh-35 missile, which was launched in 1995, was equipped with anti-ship helicopters. Due to the collapse of the Soviet Union, the development of a Soviet analog was delayed, the first Russian low-profile strategic air-to-surface missile X-101 was adopted only in 1999.



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