People's Commissariat of Munitions
People's Commissariat of Agricultural Engineering
Ministry of Machine Building
[Ministerstvo Mashinostroenie] (Minmash / MM)
|People's Commissariat of Munitions|
|Ivan P. Sergeev||11 January 1939||03 March 1941|
|Peter Goremykin||03 March 1941||16 February 1942|
|Boris Vannikov||16 February 1942||26 June 1946|
|People's Commissariat of Agricultural Engineering|
|Georgy Popov||14 March 1951||31 December 1951|
|Sergey Stepanov||31 December 1951||05 March 1953|
|Ministry of Machine Building|
|Maksim Zakharovich Saburov||05 March 1953||26 June 1953|
|Stepan H. Akopov||26 June 1953||19 April 1954|
|Ministry of Machine Building|
|Vyacheslav Vasilyevich Bakhirev||05 February 1968||05 June 1987|
|Boris Belousov||05 June 1987||27 June 1989|
On 11 January 1939 the People's Commissariat of Defense Industry was divided into several people's commissioners, among which was the People's Commissariat of Ammunition/Munitions (NCU), created on the basis existed in the People's Commissariat of Defense Industry Main munitions management.
The People's Commissariat of Munitions of the USSR [NKB], later known as the Ministry of Agricultural Engineering of the USSR, was one of the central ministries of the Soviet Government, which oversaw production of the armaments industry, mainly ammunition and explosives.The Commissriat oversaw the work of 53 production plants and 12 design offices, five construction companies, 5 universities and 11 technical schools. In 1939 it employed 337,141 workers.
At first, the People's Commissar of ammunition was a professional soldier, A.P.Sergeev. In March 1941 he was succeeded by P.N.Goremykin, who had worked before as the First Deputy People's Commissar of arms. In February 1942, B.L.Vannikov was appointedthe People's Commissar of ammunition. Vannikov was a member of the CPSU since 1919, and an active member of the underground revolutionary struggle in Baku during the Civil War. One of the prominent organizers of the defense industry, Vannikov had worked in the People's Commissar of Defense Industry and the Deputy People's Commissar of arms. At the same time, M.V.Khrunichev was appointed the post of the First Deputy People's Commissar of ammunition. A prominent industrial organizer, he had worked previously Deputy People's Commissar of Defense Industry and the Deputy People's Commissar of the aviation industry.
BL Vannikov, MV Khrunichev and PN Goremykin with Deputy Commissar NV Martynov PN Pigolkin, KS Gamow, GN Kozhevnikov, GI Sinegubovym, NA Sarkisov, VA Makhneva, departmental head SJ Bodrov, NE Streltsov, ND Ivanov, VN Sherbanenko, VA Zemlerubom, MM Gaiman, DP Basilovym, MS Klavsut, IP Golubtsov and OE conducted jointly with the factories, scientific research institutes and design bureaus industry huge organizational work to provide solutions to extremely complex and difficult task to expand capacity ammunition industry, strengthening the scientific potential of the industry, creation and introduction into production of new types of weapons and their elements.
During the first six months of the war, ammunition stocks were almost exhausted, and products coming from the industry, accounted for only 50 - 60% of the amount stipulated in the plan. On all fronts, starved of ammunition. The Party and the government demanded that the People's Commissariat of ammunition to overcome the difficulties and to provide the army with ammunition. At the same time strong measures to restore and increase production of basic branches of the industry have been taken. Commissariat, collectives of enterprises, the Party organs on the ground was carried out huge work on the relocation of the plurality of plants for the production of ammunition in the Urals and Siberia and quickly enter them into action in new places. In the first months of the war to 40% of the enterprises that produce ammunition, it was evacuated to the eastern regions.
The production of ammunition grew rapidly, and by the end of 1942, it was nearly double the 1941 amount. Already in 1942 it eliminated the advantage of Nazi Germany to provide ammunition. In 1942, the Soviet industry produced more ammunition than the industry of Nazi Germany, or rather, the industry across Europe captured by the Nazis.
What began in 1942 as a turning point in the munitions industry was fixed in 1943. Production volumes grew rapidly. The needs of the army were all fully satisfied. In 1943, 18% more ammunition was transferred to the troops than was spent in action. In 1944, production of ammunition exceeded the 1940 level by 310%.
During the years of the Great Patriotic War Soviet munitions industry produced 333.3 million. Shots for field and naval artillery, 242 800 000. Mortar rounds, about 14.5 million. Rockets for the "Katyusha", about 200 million. Aircraft ammunition, about 200 million. Antitank and antipersonnel grenades, 37.2 million. Engineering minefields, including about 26 million. Anti-tank mines, 40 thousand. Naval mines and martial charging compartments torpedoes, 161.3 thousand. Depth charges 21.4 billion. Hundreds of millions of different pyrotechnic ammunition Chemical Company Commissariat ammunition made for weaponization millions of tons of explosives and gunpowder, incendiary and pyrotechnic compositions.
In 1945 a special General Directorate of jet technology was created, headed by the Deputy People's Commissar, the structure of which was created by specialized scientific research institute of jet technology, a research institute for the administration and management of all the work on jet technology in the People's Commissariat of ammunition - test ranges [polygon, frequentlyl mis-translated at "landfill"] for rockets, central design bureau to develop a radio controlled jet long-range missiles, special design Bureau of rockets in Peenemünde on the basis of the German research Centre jet technology.
In addition, in order to assist the People's Commissariat of Munitions in recruiting institutions and central design bureau, a branch of the People's Commissariat of NII-1 and Design Bureau liquid jet engines was transferred from the People's Commissariat of Aviation Industry. USSR People's Commissariat of Agricultural Engineering was formed January 7, 1946 on the basis of the enterprises of the USSR People's Commissariat of ammunition and agricultural machine-building and enterprises of other people's commissariats, before being transformed into a Ministry with the same name on March 15, 1946.
The USSR Ministry of Mechanical Engineering / Machine Building was established 28 December 1948, on the basis of the Ministry of Heavy Machine Building of the USSR, the Ministry of Transport Engineering of the USSR, the Ministry of automobile and tractor industry of the USSR, the Ministry of Construction and Road Machinery of the USSR, part of the Ministry of Agricultural Engineering of the USSR not occupied by the production of rocket technology, and the General Directorate for construction engineering enterprises of the USSR. On 4 January 1949 by the Decree of the Ministry of Education it was abolished.
The second time the Ministry was formed was on 05 March 1953, with the union of the Ministry of Automobile and Tractor Industry of the USSR, Ministry of Machinery Industry and Instrumentation of the USSR, Department of Agricultural Engineering of the USSR and the USSR Ministry of Machine Tools.
On 07 March 1953, Moscow radio announced that in order to prevent "panic and disarray," a major reorganization of the Party and Government had been made at a-Joint meeting of the Central Committee, the Council of Ministers and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. This almost unprecedented method of handling business was in keeping with the gravity of the situation and reminiscent of the days of the German attack, when the Soviet leaders had met in a similar Joint session and formed the State Defense Council. It strongly suggested that the leaders in this moment of crisis had moved swiftly to show their unity and to gird themselves for any battle that might be coming from either inside or out.
In a complete reversal of the organizational decisions taken by the October Congress, this new decree clearly outlined the spheres of interest and power of Stalin's closest collaborators -- the members of the old Politburo. Malenkov's name came first, indicating his ascendancy. He was followed by Beria, Molotov, Voroshilov, Khruschev, Bulganin, Kaganovich, Mikoyan, Saburov and Pervukhin, in that order. Saburov and Pervukhin were the only newcomers to the group as it had existed before October 1952. Saburov was relieved of his job as head of Gosplan and became the new Minister of Machine Building. Pervukhin became the chief of the new Ministry of Electric Power Stations and the Electrical Equipment Industry.
On 19 April 1954, it was divided into three ministries : the Ministry of Automobile, Tractor and Agricultural Machinery of the USSR, the Ministry of Machine Tool and Tool Industry of the USSR, and the Ministry of Mechanical Engineering and Instruments of the USSR.
By the first months of 1955, the central government was under the chairmanship of Nikolai Bulganin, who replaced Malenkov in this post at the January 1955 CC CPSU Plenum. Bulganin criticized the State Commission for current operational planning (Gosekonomkomissiya) most, and he did not forget to mention Saburov’s personal responsibility for these problems. From 25 December, Saburov was no longer the Chairman of Gosekonomkomissiya, although he kept his position as the First Vice-Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers. His place was given to Vice-Chairman of the USSR CM Pervukhin.
The third time the Ministry of Machine Building was established was 21 January 1956 with the division of the Ministry of Mechanical Engineering and Instruments of the USSR. On 10 May 1957 it was abolished.
The fourth time it was formed was on 05 February 1968. The Ministry of Machine Building of the Soviet Union was responsible for the introduction of the production manufacture of new types of solid propellant rockets. The Head of the USSR Ministry of Machine Building, V. V. Bakhirev (1916–1991) contributed greatly to assure the high quality of the process of the production manufacturing of solid propellants. In this he was greatly assisted by his deputy chiefs V.N.Raevsky (1915–1986), L.V.Zabelin, and others. Chief engineers of chemical–technological institutes, workers at the plants producing concrete solid-propellant compounding, and many other people related to manufacturing solid propellant contributed greatly to the creation of the new types of solid propellant.
On 27 June 1989 it was united with the Ministry of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering of the USSR, the Ministry of Heavy, Power and Transport Engineering of the USSR, the Ministry of Construction , road and municipal Engineering of the USSR in one - the Ministry of Heavy Machine Building of the USSR.
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