Boris Lvovich Vannikov, (1987-1962)
Thrice Hero of Socialist Labor, general, colonel-general of Engineers and Artillery. He graduated from Moscow Higher Technological School. USSR People's Commissar of ammunition; Head of the First Main Directorate (PGU) of the Council of People's Commissars (SNK) - Council of Ministers of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), a member of the Special Committee of the State Defense Committee (GKO) - SNK - the USSR - the Special Committee number 1 of the USSR; 1st Deputy Minister of Medium Machine Building of the USSR.
Vannikov was born in Baku city, now the capital of the Republic of Azerbaijan, in a working class family. Russian (in a number of publications - a Jew). Since 1914 he was a mechanic at the plant. An active participant in the underground revolutionary struggle in Baku. In 1916-1917 years - a member of the Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries ( "SRs"). In 1918 he graduated from the Baku Polytechnic College. In the Red Army in 1918. Member of the Civil War in the Caucasus.
Demobilized in 1920, he worked as an employee at the senior inspector of the People's Commissariat of Workers 'and Peasants' Inspection (RCTs) of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) in Baku. Then, in 1921-26 years, successively held the positions of Chief Inspector, Deputy Governor of the People's Commissariat of the Economic Inspectorate Rabkrin RSFSR, combining work with study in higher education. In 1926 he graduated from the Moscow Higher Technical School named after Bauman.
From 1926, Boris Vannikov - Director Lyubertsy (now the Moscow region), then the Perm (Perm Territory today) engineering plants, and later, until 1933 - Head of the Sector of Agricultural Engineering Group mechanical engineering industry of the Supreme Economic Council (VSHV) USSR. From 1933 to December 1936 - a director of the Tula arms factory. In December 1936 - January 1937 B.L.Vannikov was Chief of artillery and tank management of the People's Commissariat of Defense Industry of the USSR; from January to December 21, 1937 - Chief of the People's Commissariat Tank control of the defense industry of the USSR, after which he was appointed Deputy People's Commissar of Defense Industry of the USSR.
In the prewar period, when the Soviet Union carried out rearmament of the Red Army, B.L.Vannikov made a significant contribution to the deployment of the defense industry and the organization of production of new models of artillery pieces, mortars, armored vehicles and ammunition. January 11, 1939 B.L.Vannikovu was entrusted to the responsible post of People's Commissar of the USSR weapons.
On June 7, 1941, Vannikov was arrested for "failing to carry out his duties". In his place was appointed director of the Leningrad "Bolshevik" factory D.Ustinov. Two and a half weeks before the start of World War II, Vannikov was dismissed from the post of People's Commissar of the USSR weapons and arrested. And after less than a month after the attack of Nazi Germany on the Soviet Union, while in prison he was handed Stalin's instructions in writing to solict his views on the measures to develop the production of arms after the outbreak of hostilities. From prison he could only speculate about the measures taken since the outbreak of war, previously adopted in the area of ??installation of the production of weapons with which he might have disagreed.
The note on which he worked for several days, was handed over to Stalin. Vannikov saw it in his hands, when he was brought to Stalin directly from prison. Many passages were underlined in red pencil, which showed that the note was read carefully. In the presence of Molotov and GM Malenkov, Stalin said: " Your note - perfect document for the People's Commissariat of weapons. We will give it to guide the people's commissar of armaments.... You were right in many respects. We were wrong ... And you were slandered by scoundrels ..."
On July 20, 1941 he was freed with the following wording: "ICT certifies that Comrade Vannikov Boris L. was temporarily arrested by the NKVD, as Let us now, by mistake, that Comrade Vannikov considered now fully rehabilitated.
Comrade Vannikov Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and SNK appointed Deputy People's Commissar of arms on the order that he must immediately start working as Deputy Commissar of arms, according to Chairman of the GKO Stalin of July 20, 1941.
From August 1941 to February 16, 1942 B.L.Vannikov was Deputy People's Commissar of arms of the USSR, and then to the end of the Great Patriotic War and the postwar period, until January 7, 1946, he was People's Commissar of the USSR ammunition.
In the severe situation for the country and the Soviet people's war years, the People's Commissar of ammunition Vannikov proved himself a competent organizer and leader of the defense industry. In the summer of 1942 he was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor. On June 8, 1942 [June 3 ?] the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR cited "exceptional services to the state in the organization of production, development of new types of artillery and small arms factories and leadership ..." Boris L.Vannikov was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor and the Order of Lenin and the gold medal "Hammer and Sickle."
As a wise and skilful organizer, B.L.Vannikov did everything possible to ensure that the Red Army and Navy guns, mortars, ammunition of all types and calibers. After the victory in the Battle of Stalingrad (February 2, 1943) the army and navy found that there was no shortage of shells, which contributed to the early achievement of the victory over Nazi Germany and imperialist Japan. And the difficulties of this period is not whether, to ensure every gun, tank, plane, ship to quantify, although it was important.
There was a need for excellent quality fragmentation, armor-piercing, cumulative, piercing and the like shells, with a series of fuses. And this, in turn, were required not only manpower, but also the mind and the designer phenomenal organizational skills. In total, this was achieved thanks to the People's Commissar of ammunition Vannikov. Resolution of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR on January 24, 1944 # 83 Vannikov Boris L. awarded the rank of "Lieutenant-General of engineering and artillery service." Resolution of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR on November 18, 1944 # 1609, Lieutenant-General of engineering and artillery service BL Vannikov awarded the rank of "Colonel-General engineering and artillery service."
From 1942 to 1946, he was Narkom [People's Commissar] of Ammunition. During this time he worked first in the People's Commissariat of weapons, and then performed the task of the State Defense Committee, concerning the production of ammunition for anti-aircraft guns and recovery evacuated inland artillery factories.
After the victorious end of the war, he remained in the post of the USSR People's Commissar of ammunition, 20 August 1945 at the suggestion of IV Stalin. Colonel-General engineering and artillery service Vannikov BL was appointed head of the First Main Directorate of the SNK - the USSR and at the same time a member of the Special Committee of the State Defense Committee - SNK - the USSR - the Special Committee number 1 of the USSR, established and controlled by the LP Beria to address issues related to the creation of nuclear weapons.
From 1946, he worked in the office of the Council of Ministers of USSR; then he was First Vice-Minister of Medium Machine Building [Middle Engineering Industry] (in Soviet times, the ministry running Nuclear Industry had that cover name). He was deputy of L.P. Beria responsible for the nuclear program. As head of the PSU Vannikov actively participated in the creation of the Soviet nuclear bomb. A talented engineer and an excellent organizer, he was able to quickly find a common language with a large team of scientists, headed by IV Kurchatov.
On August 29, 1949 the USSR carried out the explosion of the first atomic bomb, which was the response to the US threat possessed by the time a nuclear weapon, they have repeatedly had to try blowing up July 16, 1945 the plutonium bomb, and then applying these deadly weapons at the end of 2 st world war, dropping on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima August 6, 1945 and a uranium bomb on Nagasaki August 9, 1945 a plutonium bomb. Now all humanity learned that in the USSR there was a serious deterrent weapon.
By Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from October 29, 1949, Colonel-General engineering and artillery service Vannikov Boris L. was awarded the second gold medal "Hammer and Sickle."
After the death March 5, 1953 Joseph Stalin, Colonel-General engineering and artillery service BL Vannikova demoted and appointed First Deputy Minister of Medium Machine Building of the USSR. This ministry was focused management major defense industry enterprises of the country.
On August 12, 1953 the successful testing of the first Soviet hydrogen bomb was conducted in which B.L.Vannikov took an active part as one of the leading heads of the Ministry of Defence. Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from January 4, 1954, Colonel-General engineering and artillery service Vannikov Boris L. awarded third gold medal "Hammer and Sickle" Order of Lenin. In February 1958, Colonel-General engineering and artillery service BL Vannikov retired.
From 21 March 1939 to 17 October 1961 B.L.Vannikov was elected member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), since 1952 - the Communist Party - in the XVIII (1939) year, XVIII (1941), the XIX (1952) and XX (1956) congresses of the party. He was a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR 2 nd convocation.
Boris L. Vannikov lived in Moscow, where he died on February 22, 1962. The urn with his ashes rest on the Red Square in the Kremlin wall.
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