Naval Spetsnaz [Spetsialnaya Razvedha] - History
At the very beginning of the Soviet-German war, Admiral Golovko, the commander of the Northern Fleet, had an urgent need for immediate intelligence on German land forces in northern Norway and Finland. From a start point only ninety kilometers west of his fleet main base at Polyarnyy, north of Murmansk, a German corps-sized force had begun a land offensive on 29 June 1941, with the objective to capture Murmansk, the principle Soviet industrial and port city in the region. On 5 July 1941 Admiral Golovko authorized the formation of a ground reconnaissance detachment, with an initial fill of sixty-five to seventy personnel. The detachment's first complement was recruited from among the fleet's athletes.
The detachment's first barracks was with the submarine brigade in Polyarnyy, where they would be "cut off from unnecessary eyes."6 Training began immediately, with the urgency that only impending combat deployment can provide. The detachment was assigned its first combat mission just a week later, to reconnoiter the coastline east of Sredniy Isthmus, and determine if German ground forces had orcupied positions along the southern shore of Motovskiy Bay. The detachment deployed on two wooden boats, conducted the mission, and returned to base without enemy contact or casualties.
After the initial brief, though successful operations in July, in August the detachment suffered a major defeat. While returning from a successful raid on a Finnish army position near Cape Pikshuev, the detachment was caught in the open sea by six German fighters, and strafed. Eight men were killed, and thirty wounded, over half the detachment's total strength, including some of its most experienced leaders. With Admiral Golovko's support, however, the detachment was reconstituted by mid-August 1941.
The first insertion of Soviet special operations forces into the Varanger Peninsula in northern Norway occurred in late September 1941. This force had two missions: they were to determine the location, strength, and activities of German garrisons between Vardo and Vadso, and establish contact with the Norwegian resistance, as part of a plan of regional intelligence activities. One of the conclusions drawn from the operation on Varanger Peninsula was that a protracted, Soviet sponsored partisan struggle there was not feasible. There was little cover and concealment, all the populated areas were concentrated along the coastline, where the Germans could maintain tight observation and control, and the population base was too small to absorb strangers.
The insertions of small reconnaissance teams continued through the remainder of 1942 and 1943. It wasn't until September 1942 that German counter-intelligence was able to determine the existence of the group and how it operated, through a prisoner-of-war interrogation. Using this information, and reports from Norwegian collaborators, by the summer of 1943 the Germans were able to kill or capture several agents, and even had minor successes in turning agents, entering the radio net, and luring a Soviet submarine into ambush.
The major combat activity of the detachment in early 1942 was a landing in support of the Soviet offensive, 28 April-13 May. On 26 April, the reconnaissance detachment was subordinated to the commander, 12th Naval Infantry Brigade, to support his unit's landing on the German-held coast west of Cape Pikshuev. The mission of the detachment was to attack and seize a German outpost on Hill 415.3, and hold it until receipt of further orders. Their landing was purposely timed to distract the attention of the German defenders from the main landing area of the larger brigade to the east.
The concluding combat actions of Leonov's detachment in the European theater were two landings in support of the Petsamo-Kirkenes Operation, in October 1944.63 In late September, Admiral Golovko's staff began to plan an amphibious landing at Liinakhamari, the small harbor north of Petsamo in Petsamo Bay. Entrance to Petsamo Bay was controlled by a German shore battery position on Cape Krestovyy (Ristaniemi). To neutralize these guns, Golovko ordered the use of a composite raiding force, made up of the reconnaissance detachments of the Northern Defensive Region (100 men) and of the Northern Fleet (80 men).
With the war against the Germans in the Far North over, the detachment stood down. But even while German forces were defending their homeland, the Soviet Union was planning its entry into the war with Japan. The first transfer of naval special operations forces to the new theater occurred in March of 1945, when three squad leaders were sent to the Amur River flotilla. A week after the German defeat in May, Leonov's detachment was alerted for restationing to the Pacific Fleet. A selection was made of the young and healthy men, leaving behind those whose wounds were disabling, and others who were reservists or nearing the end of their term of service. The remaining group of approximately forty-four men left Polyarnyy in the last week of May, and arrived in Vladivostok on 12 June, having ridden the entire distance by railroad.
The Pacific Fleet already had a reconnaissance force established by Lt. Col. N. A. Inzartsev, who had earlier commanded the detachment in the Northern Fleet. The "Northerners" made up one third of the combined detachment, giving it a total strength of approximately 130 men. Leonov became the new commander, and quickly organized the detachment into two platoons and a support section. He placed "Northerners" in all leadership positions down to squad level, and distributed the remainder of his veterans evenly throughout the unit. On 19 June the detachment moved to a barracks on Russian Island, in the entrance to the bay at Vladivostok. Here they could live and train in relative isolation.
The Pacific Fleet reconnaissance detachment never went deep inland, and did not conduct operations into Japanese rear areas. These differences in organization and mission reflect a Soviet penchant for tailoring forces to a specific theater of military operations.
These forces were historical precursors for what is now called Soviet naval spetsnaz. A good start point is the name of the organization. The Northern Fleet detachment's first official unit designation was "4th Special Volunteer Detachment of Sailors," 88 which in August 1941 changed to "4th Reconnaissance Detachment of Headquarters, Fleet 89 , and ultimately became the 181st Special Reconnaissance Detachment [osobogo razvedyvatel'nogo otryada. In current Soviet sources, the organization is referred to by a number of descriptive titles: "Reconnaissance detachment (Northern Fleet), "Reconnaissance detachment of naval scouts," and "Special purpose reconnaissance detachment of the Northern Fleet." The Pacific Fleet's detachment is referred to in similar terms. The most common elements in all these title. are "reconnaissance", and "special purpose" [osobogo naznacheniyal.
A second hallmark of these detachments was their subordination to the highest level of operational command in the Soviet navy-the fleet headquarters. The clearest evidence of this is in the Northern Fleet, where Admiral Golovko was frequently personally involved in the day-to-day activities of the detachment. Leonov makes several references to personal meetings with Golovko to discuss operational issues. Golovko specified missions and received reports, both from the field and after the fact. Occasionally the detachments were subordinated to a naval infantry command for a specific mission, but they always returned to control of the fleet headquarters.
Twice Hero of the Soviet Union Viktor Leonov attended Kirov Caspian Naval School in 1950, and in 1956 was an instructor at the Voroshilov Naval Academy. He retired from active service in July 1956, just before his fortieth birthday. Leonov is known to have played a role in the establishment of Soviet ground forces' special purpose force in the early 1960's.
Marine commandos "People-frog", "sea devils", "Knights of the depths" - as they call frogmen who became very popular half a century ago. "The Sea Devils" skydive, faster than others burrow into the ground, swim at great depths ... They say these "universal soldiers" there are no barriers and impossible tasks.
The first period. Prerequisites (1930-1941gg) The idea of marine sabotage goes back centuries. However, as for the realization of any idea prerequisites are required. In this case, the availability of special equipment and breathing apparatus. Without going into the history of their creation in the early 20th century, I would say that in our country only in the years 1931-1938 were released several types of simple personal breathing apparatus (IDA). In 1934 was created the diving suit, insulating from the water body and the person's head. Fleets were created specialist positions rescue case and developed regulatory documents. In cases of staff of the Pacific Fleet (PF) has a mention of the first underwater outlet of personnel of the submarine (pl). Outputs are at a depth of 10 meters. This doctrine was held July 6, 1936 in mp brigade, which at that time commanded by Captain First Rank Bachelors GN Supervised the preparation of and access to the teaching staff of the third rank Krivosheenko surgeon NK The exercise - an opportunity to confirm the exit of personnel from the sunken submarine. However, the proper conclusions about this doctrine had not been made. Check the status of individual rescue cases (ISD) on the square of the Pacific Fleet surgeon first rank Savitchev II, the third rank Krivosheenko N.K.i Military Engineer third rank Krol GF reported in early 1938, the state of the Military Council and suggested the creation of training of trainers ISD. Courses began work in 1938 9.10.
In the mid-thirties in the Soviet Union to the idea of landing saboteurs ashore using diving equipment from the recessed submarine came in developing the means of salvation for the crews of submarines. Savitchev, Krivosheenko and Krol in the leadership and teaching courses on individual Rescue Operations (ISD) have come to believe that self-contained breathing apparatus (IDA) can get the same value as the parachute paratrooper. Moreover, they decided to prove it in practice. To this end, they had done a great research and development work aimed at ensuring such action and improvement of equipment and technology in existence.
In October 1938, they produced a special exercise plan, which on October 19 approved the Commander of the Pacific Fleet, the flagship of the second rank NG Kuznetsov Accountable executive appointed surgeon of the first rank Savitchev II Heads-surgeon third rank Krivosheenko NK and rank of Third Military Engineer Krol GF
Doctrine "to exit fighters from torpedo submarine submariner personal equipment from depths of 15-20 meters, with the aim of cutting anti networks to boost anti-submarine barriers, replacement crews submerged submarine landing exploration and commit an act of sabotage on shore "with the real use of weapons and explosive devices, was held from 22 to 24 October. Outputs are in the bay Ulysses submarine u-112, commanded by Captain 3rd Rank Berestovskii. Attended the exercise of military representatives of the Council of the Pacific Fleet.
All participants facing objectives were successfully met. The experience gained from these exercises was priceless. Suffice it to say that he used to create the special forces units of the Navy in the 50s. Teaching leaders prepared an extensive and detailed report on the conduct of exercises. In conclusion, they wrote that it was necessary "to pay exceptional attention to the penetration into the bay, forcing underwater obstacles using ICP, which requires the creation of experimental groups on the seas or a centralized group."
Reports were sent to the chain of command, experience the exercise was considered interesting, positive, and ... forgotten. In 1940, the Black Sea Fleet were conducted similar exercises, but on a smaller scale. And BSF did not know about the experience of the Pacific Fleet and claimed priority. Only in 1941 from the staff of the first special naval infantry brigades were selected forty men, who, having passed a medical examination, started light diving training course. To do this at their disposal was highlighted submarine "True." Since the beginning of the war, the group became part of the special purpose company.
The second period (1941-1945gg.) Create RON - the prototype of modern special forces units of the Navy The Great Patriotic War. In conditions complicate the situation in the Baltic direction for solving complex operational tasks and reconnaissance behind enemy lines in the coastal strip the Intelligence Staff of the CBF formed seven sea reconnaissance. The commanders of the two of them later became commander of the first parts of the Navy special forces. This, at the time, a senior lieutenant Yakovlev EV and Captain Potehin GV
In a blockade infiltration by land was very difficult. The most convenient and secretive remained only sea route using light diving equipment.
Special purpose company In late July 1941, Rear Admiral Krylov FI And shall report to the representative of the Supreme Command, Admiral Isakov, arrived in Leningrad, expressed fears that trained divers after the evacuation from Vyborg diving schools can be sent to the infantry. He offered to leave them in the fleet, including creating a special intelligence unit, personnel of which will go to the rear of fascists in light diving equipment. This proposal was approved and agreed verbally state company, which included one hundred forty six people. August 11, 1941, an order was People's Commissar of the Navy on the formation of special purpose companies (RON). Its commander, on the recommendation of Krylov was appointed Lieutenant Prokhvatilov Ivan.
To 7sentyabrya preparation and nailing new units were completed and handed over to the company of the intelligence (PO) Staff of the Baltic Fleet. It reports directly to the Deputy Chief of RA on human intelligence captain third rank Bekrenevu LK
The first combat operation was conducted reconnaissance RON in September 1941, when the town of Vyborg was a difficult situation. Finns tried to cut waste 23rd Army and landed with machine guns and light artillery on one of the islands in the Gulf of Vyborg and thus cut out of the port into the sea.
Company commander received orders within three days to prepare personnel for clandestine landing on the island and destroy the enemy. Lieutenant Prokhvatilov with a group of divers scouts for two days revealed the position of the Finnish troops, and also checked the bottom near the island. In deciding night fifty divers - scouts lightweight diving equipment landed on the island, but the Finns advance left him, throwing guns and machine guns without locks. As it turned out, the ranks RON penetrated Finnish scout, which aired on the radio about upcoming opponent actions, but in the end was exposed. After that, all that relates to the operation commander only knew. Direct executors challenge was brought only in the last hours in the initial paragraph to go. The motto of the company was the phrase: "A Scout is a language not dissolve."
Rota was originally designed to interact with human intelligence, but at the same time, divers scouts search, recovery and disposal of bottom magnetic mines, repeatedly brought to the recovery of sunken ships documents, inspection ports to detect wrecks, obstructions and mines. However, solving these problems, a company fully lives up to its name, spending during the war more than two hundred reconnaissance and sabotage operations using light diving equipment.
Experience from other fleets Can not say that for other fleets create divisions divers scouts attention was not given. However, the preparation of these units and the experience of their use were very small.
Black Sea Fleet to April 1944 was created reconnaissance special detachment, consisting of ten persons. It was headed by a former platoon commander Senior Lieutenant RON Osipov. But the detachment participated in one combat operation. Fifth of April detachment was landed from surface ships near the village Lyubimovka with the task to conduct reconnaissance ships entering and leaving the post of Sevastopol. Detachment regularly aired on radio intelligence information extracted. Squad finished tenth of May to combat the problem and was evacuated to the location of our troops.
After the capture of Sevastopol divers - POOH scouts conducted a survey of the sunken German ships and seized various documents are of value to the command.
In late 1945, POOH was disbanded.
The Pacific Fleet after 1938 annual training exercises on the landing of reconnaissance submarine submerged. And during the war in order to combat training conducted such exercises. In 1945, the experience of these exercises was even designed instruction on landing craft with WG. However, the formation of one hundred and fortieth squad fleet only started in January 1945 with a completion date of March 15. But check the progress of creating divisions revealed unsatisfactory state of affairs.
In the end, the squad was formed on the basis of 181 reconnaissance Staff of the Northern Fleet, under the command of Hero of the Soviet Union lieutenant VN Leonov This determined the character of his subsequent actions. In August 1945, a detachment spent several brilliant operations in a number of Korean ports, but diving equipment is not used.
The Northern Fleet units divers scouts were not created.
Disbanding RON In 1944, against the backdrop of the huge success of our troops fighting activity RON was disproportionately small. Failing to appreciate the potential of this unit in October 1944goda GMSH Intelligence Agency decides to transfer its assets and RON in emergency rescue CBF. However, such a decision were Chief of Staff disagree CBF and the Intelligence, as well as company commander. They felt it necessary to have fleets in peacetime like parts Prokhvatilov even suggested creating a company based on school divers reconnaissance Intelligence GMSH. This idea was supported by officers RU GMSH to Mr. 3 rank Shashenkov DU to Mr. LK 1 rank Bekrenev Colonel NS Frumkin, but their opinion was not taken into account.
In September-October 1945 GMSH inspected Baltic Fleet. The Commission gave the conclusion: "The intelligence units in the intelligence CBF in peacetime have not expedient." This conclusion was made in the act of inspection, who signed GMSH chief Admiral Isakov IS, a company created by his order in 1941. He wrote: "Personnel scouts in peacetime is not necessary to cook." October 14, 1945 Commander of the Baltic Fleet number 0580, issued an order to disband the RON up to 20.10.45.Pervoe divers in the world division of Exploration ceased to exist.
The third period (1950-1960) Fighting for the reconstruction of special intelligence units of the Navy and the creation of MCI. B The struggle for the building parts divers scouts In the postwar years, captain Dmitry Shashenkov Uvarovichi Rear Admiral Bekrenev Leonid K. repeatedly appealed to the command of the Navy initiative to recreate the special units in the Navy, but all of them were rejected. Only in late 1952, Rear Admiral treatment Bekreneva LK, where he refers to the experience of creating special units abroad in the land forces of the country, had its effect. Twenty Ninth May 1952 issue of establishing special units was considered the Naval Minister, Vice-Admiral Kuznetsov NG and approved in the "Action Plan to strengthen the Navy intelligence" presented by Rear Admiral Bekrenevym January 24, 1953. At a meeting with heads of departments GRU MGSH Minister confirmed the decision to create fleets of individual marine reconnaissance battalions, primarily on the Black Sea Fleet and the Navy 4 (Baltic).
Following the August 1953 towing scientist has confirmed the effectiveness of units divers scouts been conclusively proven the need for their creation and June 24, 1953 directive Navy General Staff, was opened state 6th maritime reconnaissance trip with an expiration date of acquisition in October 1953. Researchers believe that the naval command at the signing of the directive has not been firmly believes in the need to create parts rot in the system exploration and awaited confirmation from the towing exercises. Therefore, it is confirmed and what was created earlier. Item was appointed commander Captain First Rank Eugene V. Yakovlev.
Creating pieces of modern special forces Navy In September 1953, despite the fact that the place is not quite satisfy the requirement of secrecy, it was decided to place the 6 MCI in the Bay Area Round Sevastopol.
By 1955 year6 MCI finished institutionalized and began to conduct military training divers Scouts planting them with surface ships and airlift, was created and training facilities. In 1954, the Navy General Staff directive of 15 October open states MCI 4 Navy (Baltic Fleet). Appointed commander Colonel Potekhin Georgy was previously a deputy commander of 6 MCI. Item is located a few kilometers from the sea and ten miles from the Baltic. Generally space for dislocation points were chosen as specially unsuccessful. When forming MCI Pacific Ocean, according to the directive of the General Staff of the Navy 18.03 1955 stationed part of the bay was determined Small Ulysses, near Vladivostok, but there were no facilities. Command point second rank captain Peter Kovalenko Prokopevich inform the guide and point repeatedly changing its location. Only in the beginning of December MCI personnel relocated to a place of permanent deployment on the Russian island.
In February 1956, on the instructions of the Navy and intelligence based on the experience of its activities 6 MCI develops "Basic requirements for the placement of reconnaissance and sabotage parts intelligence." But the real governing this document did not. The construction matbazy Navy Special Forces does not have enough money.
The lack of normal conditions for placing MCI forces Commander of the Northern Fleet Commander in Chief to seek a request for postponement of the creation of MCI from 1955 to 1957. The request was granted and MCI began to form on the directive of the General Staff of the Navy on November 26, 1957. MCI was appointed commander Colonel EM Beljak
Because points manned by conscripts, not enough experienced instructors. Sixth paragraph, as the most experienced, have to share trained personnel.
In December 1958, the states of all the items have been increased. With this initiative was made to Mr. 1ranga Shashenkov DU He proposed a new staffing structure, allows you to bring to the daily battle. He put the task of developing the means of propulsion submarine (CAP) and towing. Combat training is intensified. Appears all new equipment and machinery. Despite all the difficulties, to come to an end in 1960, mostly nailing and arrangement of parts divers - scouts.
The fourth period (1960 - 1992) Combat training and testing equipment Total strength of the parts spetsrazvedki Navy three points was increased to two hundred and seventy people. In this part of the SWAT Navy were quite a long time. At the same time, MCI formed of assigned the task of preparing the composition for their parts in the event of war. In May 1960, under the leadership of kapitana1ranga Shashenkova DU razrbotana combat training program for staff of assigned, summoned on charges of stock.
6 In 1961, MCI is transferred to the island Pervomajskij Ochakiv, and in June 1966 the USSR Ministry of Defense directive GSH eight divers spies under the command of Captain Black MS translated from the Caspian Sea and is incorporated into the 6 MCI. They are tasked with testing equipment and training of assigned staff. In the autumn of 1962 in the village of Ordzhonikidze, near Feodosia, the initiative D.U Shashenkova tests were carried out about opportunities and air transportation of weapons and special equipment parts sp. Tested media divers tugs, cases for transporting the wounded and prisoners, cargo containers, mines, communications and electronic intelligence. From this group were able to rot airlift and got great mobility.
As part of the Caspian flotilla item was formed only in 1969 and the Navy General Staff directive included, according to the state, about fifty people. Item located in Baku.
At the beginning of June 1968 6 MCI has been converted into 17 brigade of special purpose.
Special equipment enjoyed by divers - Scouts to develop and improve in the science lab special diving equipment in the institute number 11 ACS Navy established June 15, 1953 directive by the number of WMD intelligence Navy. Originally lab staff was only six people. Later, as the Navy special forces, states subjected to all sorts of changes in the laboratory. In October 1961, the laboratory was transformed into a department numbering fourteen people. This state lasted until the end of the sixties.
In 1967, states were introduced MCI group maintenance of subsea equipment movements of 14 people and 6 specialists electromechanical workshops.
1968-69gg Navy special forces in parts starting to establish a technical base for servicing PSD. Work is underway to improve organizational structure, improving the material base, as well as equipment and armament. Developed new weapons, such as small and engineering.
Despite the difficulties, combat training improved. In January 1983, the newly created item at SF. The staffing of personnel of the Navy special forces units increases.
During the exercises practiced all new delivery options divers scouts in the enemy's rear. In the 17th Brigade on the initiative and under the leadership of the deputy commander Colonel Pozdnjakova VD in the mid-eighties committed jumping out of planes with a parachute PV-3 on the water with ultra-low altitudes. He set a world record, having made the jump from 50 meters, and S. Galaev made the jump from 80 meters, diving equipment. 17 separate brigade of special purpose, in addition to the program BP, in the eighties, has been preparing for divers KGB Spetsnaz "Vympel", as well as a number of other departments and agencies of law enforcement agencies of the USSR.
Divers of the brigade participated in underwater operations after the collapse of the ship "Nakhimov". Divers scouts took an active part in the trials of diving equipment and technology, as well as the means of propulsion underwater. Many of them for the test were awarded homeland. commandos Baltic item participated in clearance of the Suez Canal, as well as ensure the safety of the negotiation process in Malta and in Reykjavik.
Divers scouts in peacetime constantly patrolled by the ships of their fleets and were ready his leadership team to begin combat mission behind enemy lines. The last years of the eighties can be considered the flowering parts Special Intelligence of the Navy. In the early nineties began new makeover - harbingers of the collapse. Since January 1, 1990 17 special purpose brigade, which was part of the Black Sea Fleet was again reorganized into reconnaissance item - RP 1464. Categories commander and deputy have been reduced in accordance with the state of the item. Staff structure was also aligned state RP.
The present stage of history Navy Special Forces Ochakov. 1992-1995 and beyond Intelligence point of special purpose, by definition, the Black Sea Fleet was to remain a part of this fleet. However, this did not happen.
Details backroom games, led team to Ukrainian oath, still remain a mystery. An important role was played by the brigade commander, Captain First Rank Karpenko, who had a house in Ochakov and connections that were lost during the relocation team in Russia. Supported the idea of transition in the Navy and Chief of Staff of the Ukrainian captain of the second rank Satisfactory later dismissed from the Armed Forces and who now lives in Moscow. Whatever it was, once on the island Pervomajskij Colonel arrived, the representative of the General Staff of Ukraine. Two - three days at the morning team Karpenko said: "Russia has refused from us! Therefore, those who do not take an oath to Ukraine tomorrow can consider himself discharged from the Armed Forces. "
Much of the officers refused to take the oath. Wanting to serve Russia, they died out in the Baltic Sea and the North and the Pacific Ocean. These were the best trained officers. Part of the midshipmen and officers, mostly young, who did not keep anything in the Navy, just quit. Part were those who had a little before retirement and tied to Ochakov family ties, that is married to a local ladies.
With the departure of a number of competent officers their jobs filled with people far away from the specifics of the brigade combat swimmers. Level of training began to fall. Ukrainization quickly bore fruit.
appeared directive order to speak, to command and to maintain documentation in the Ukrainian language. After some time and came to the Ukrainian charter. But how to conduct classes, if all guidelines are written in Russian? Among other things, the new "masters of life" intervened and the holy of holies - the mobilization readiness of parts, as well as to change the principles of recruitment team. Previously served in the part physically strong guys, pre DOSAAF training and lived in Odessa and Mykolaiv regions. This allowed a period of threat retrofitted part of retired sailors assigned to the brigade, to wartime in the shortest possible time. Now RUHovskie ideologues strongly demanded that the part was completed by the natives of Western Ukraine, known for its nationalist sentiments in the Soviet era. The worst thing that started bundle officer and warrant officer in the environment. Frequent statements of individual officers against their Russian colleagues: "Leave your hunger in Russia!" Just the sight was all falling apart and a portion of Fame for all the Armed Forces of the USSR its level of combat training, was no longer able to fulfill some of the most complex topics diving training program due to lack of the required number of diving specialists appropriate level soon added another problem - the personnel, but at a higher level. Specificity of special units requires special knowledge. Specificity of special units of the Navy requires that knowledge twice. It is not enough to read a book about spies or watch the movie "Sommando." Nevertheless, a number of command positions in the leadership headquarters were assigned to people who came from Russia and Ukraine who wanted to serve, but no relation to the special forces, but still had no naval. Would know on the application of spetsrazvedki Navy officer before that takes planning Armored Division combat training? Nevertheless, these are the people began to give orders parts, about the specifics of which they were familiar only American kinoboevika. Watching tales about how Rimbaud stone knocks helicopter or as Schwarzenegger jumps out of jet taking off, these people began to make their own adjustments to military specifications, which abundantly watered then those who created the special forces of the Navy. For example, take this "nerd" guidance document in Russian, where it says that special group should make the thirty-kilometer march over rough terrain in twelve hours, and thinks, "Well, these lazy" Muscovites ". Average speed of human movement - five kilometers per hour. Thirty divide by five, get six o'clock. Throws two hours and get peresechenke-eight hours. "Thus was born the new standard, which is impossible to fulfill. All from the fact that this "expert" he never in his life did not make this march throw. On the basis of these calculations commandos set goals, which is physically impossible to perform.
At this very period began the division of the fleet, which nearly ended the war. Little by little, the conflict associated with the carving up the Black Sea Fleet, who was born first at the diplomatic level began to flow at the level of military artists. War is the continuation of politics.
arose, the so-called "period of threat" policy transition from one state to another. One summer dney1995 at brigade headquarters received an order to combat preparation and conclusion of fifteen groups in the area of the Black Sea fleet, as well as directly to the city of Sevastopol for a show of force to the Russian sailors. The group got so many explosives and ammunition, the total amount which would be enough to blow all the dust in the City of Glory Russian sailors. Themselves with a whole arsenal commandos started working out educational tasks - diving under water slopes in the vicinity of the sites of the Russian Navy. But apart from the demonstration tasks spetsnaz units had very specific combat missions in case of attempts to bring the Russian ships at sea. If someone naively believes that fifteen groups from the special purpose razvedpunkta Black Sea Fleet - a trifle, he is very much mistaken. Even one group of underwater saboteurs capable to complicate the work of the naval base. And they acted in Sevastopol 15.Samomu experienced officer put most responsible task. Group, which consisted of ten officers and warrant officers, was to capture and hold until the main forces headquarters Russian Black Sea Fleet. Just a fluke at the last moment prevented war.
According to the warrant, which continued to serve in Ochakov RP level of combat training part is now below the Mary Basin. Part almost no specialists capable of walking alone on the media. Slopes under water practically not carried out due to lack of GCS - no money. in Russia
Part of the Navy Special Forces, which are composed of the Pacific Fleet, and BF SF almost did not survive such shocks which befell Ochakovo points. But, of course, their fully touched trends affecting the Russian Armed Forces in the last years of the twentieth century.
This is not the RP, which was part of the Caspian Flotilla. This item, after complications of the situation in Baku, was transferred to the Leningrad region, and after RP Black Sea Fleet from its composition, was relocated under Novorossiysk and became part of the Black Sea Fleet. Part of the Navy Special Forces to the second Chechen never participated in the fighting, despite the fact that during a time of war in Afghanistan, many of the officers wrote reports with a request to forward them to the region to acquire combat experience. However, the leadership of the Special Intelligence of the Navy did not respond to these requests. To transfer the combat experience with the Navy special forces sent officers and warrant officers serving in the Army earlier parts and participated in ppb However, at the beginning of the second Chechen campaign has changed because of the Marine Corps in peacetime have intelligence units. It is the task of military intelligence units in promoting MT were assigned to Special Forces units of the Navy. However, in February-March, the group were withdrawn and returned to their RPE.
At the moment of the Special Intelligence of the Navy continue to improve the level of training.
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