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Great Patriotic War - Weapons and Equipment

Simultaneously with the construction of ships, aviation, coastal defense and the development of systems, the Navy conducted intense work on creating the most perfect specimens of weapons and military equipment of the fleet. Development of the Marine artillery in the Soviet Union in the prewar years, mainly proceeded in the following areas.

Growth of power tools due to transition to a more powerful gunpowder, the elongation of gun barrels, raising the pressure in the barrel, increasing the initial velocity, the weight of projectiles used in the manufacture of tools to enhance their survivability high-alloy steels; Development of new instruments of the main, auxiliary and, in particular, anti-aircraft gauges, as well as universal, and multi-stabilized units. Improved fire control instruments with the use of gyroscopes, new optical and electron-optical (teplopelengatorov) surveillance.

From 1937 to 1941, naval artillery Navy enriched with several new designs of tools and equipment. For example, on arms received: 180/57-mm guns - in towers; 130/50-mm deck installation B-13; 100/56-mm universal deck installation B-34. Insufficient rate of development of naval anti-aircraft artillery, observed in the Navy in the mid 1930s, during the war demanded strenuous efforts to install on ships antiaircraft guns. Positive assessment was deserved for the quality ammunition of Soviet naval artillery and fire control devices.

Development of torpedo weapons during the years 1928-1941 was largely subordinated to the requirements of increasing the speed of the torpedos, increasing the weight of payloads, increasing the destructive power of an explosive, shattering the reliability of the devices, and providing sufficient accuracy. There were also problems with homing torpedoes, proximity fuzes, and finally, devices for the firing of the torpedo tubes of submarines. In the prewar period for all fleets, including the Soviet, a lot of attention was paid to the development of aircraft torpedoes.

As the experience of the Great Patriotic War demonstrated, torpedoe samples 1933 and 1938, adopted by the Navy, were not inferior to the majority of foreign torpedoes. However, they did not have the significant disadvantages that were inherent in the torpedoes of the German and American fleets, the large deviations in the depth of travel and failures proximity fuzes [these were a common failure mode, since the American design was based on the German design obtained after the Great War].

The development of mines in the Navy during the prewar period went mainly along the following lines: further increase the depth of the place setting and the speed in the drop mines, increasing the weight of warhead and increased the destructive power of explosives, achieving the greatest possible survival of mines and their protivotralnoy stability. Together with the development of minefields, for production from surface ships and submarines, conducted an enhanced development of new types of mines for production for aircraft, as well as appropriate modifications to already existing mines.

The most serious shortcoming in the mine Navy to the top of the Great Patriotic War was the lack of influence mines and minefields tube to arm submarines. Such mines have appeared only in 1943, lagging behind in the creation of influence mines to a large extent determined the lag in the development of influence sweeps, and this greatly complicated the struggle against the enemy mines in the initial period of war.

Up to the 1930s there were depth charges and towed anti-personnel mines dating from the First World War in service with the Navy of the USSR, left over from the old Russian navy. Technical means of monitoring the submarines were absent. ? But since the late 1920, work began on creating new, more advanced designs of anti-submarine weapons and tools. In 1933 the Navy adopted new big and small depth charges and release gear. Then there was developed a method of stepwise bombing. In the end, before the start of the Great Patriotic War of depth charges the Navy had not matched any navies of allies, nor the fleet of Nazi Germany. Much worse was the case with the means of hydroacoustic monitoring. The reason for this was the relative youth of the Soviet sonar technology, which began to develop only during the first two Five Year Plans. The samples hydrophone and underwater communications devices, by the beginning of World War II ships were armed with domestic production, did not respond adequately to the requirements of any successful surveillance submarines.

By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the Navy had quite modern means of radio communications, and in particular the short-range equipment. There had been some achievements in the field of radar observation (station ENG-1 and RUS-2) and electrooptics (teplopelengatory), but in general the technical means of observation developed at far too slow a pace. Improved means of radar, to establish which work was conducted during the prewar years, appeared only during the Great Patriotic War.

According to completely reliable accounts of the Lend Lease effort, 176 ships were handed over to the Pacific and 116 to the Polar navies of the Soviet Union. The supplies included 27 Tacoma coastguard ships, 78 submarine chasers, 56 AM and YMS minesweepers, and 131 Vosper, Higgins, and Elco torpedo boats. The list sounds impressive, but 12 of the Elco boats and 14 of the Vosper boats docked in Russia's Arctic seaports on June 20, 1945 and June 20, 1945, that is, after the end of fighting in Europe. The 46 submarine chasers meant for the Arctic navy came to the destination point on April 25, 1945, also too late to take part in combat missions. Deliveries to the Pacific navy were similarly late for the real fight: 12 of the 27 coastguard ships arrived after September 9, 1945, 16 of the 35 submarine chasers only in October, 1945, and 28 of the 56 minesweepers on September 10, 1945. Overall,some 90% of the ships supplied to the USSR under Lend-Lease checked in between May, 1944 and October, 1945, and the program's net figures acquire a different meaning in the light of the data.




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