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Putilov factory - Czarist Period

Putilovsky Plant, from 1922 to 1934 - Krasny Putilovets) was founded in April 1801 as a cast-iron foundry that carried out orders for the production of artillery ammunition. Since 1812, the plant began to develop engineering direction, starting to manufacture steam engines. At the same time, the foundry was mastered; the plant participated in the creation of architectural ensembles and monumental-sculptural monuments of St. Petersburg and its suburbs.

In November 1824, the St. Petersburg Foundry was virtually destroyed by flooding. Four subsequent decades became for the enterprise a period of struggle for survival.

In 1868, the plant was acquired by the famous Russian engineer and entrepreneur N. I. Putilov (1820-1880), who in 12 years turned the metallurgical enterprise into a diversified machine-building complex. In the shortest possible time, the plant became the main supplier of rails for Russian railways, mastered the production of high-quality steels, the production of ammunition, cars, guns, gun turrets for battleships, tools, large-sized metal structures, and other types of industrial products, many of which were produced using our own technology. At the same time, the social infrastructure of the enterprise developed: a hospital, a canteen, a library were opened, a park was laid out and a theater was built, an effective system of vocational training was created. It was under N. I. Putilov that the foundations of diversified production were laid.

Since then, thousands of generations of machinery and industrial equipment have been manufactured by many generations of the Putilov-Kirov workers, who were ahead of their time and had no world analogues. Many samples gave a start in life to the whole directions of development of technology. Thus, the Kirov Plant is one of the pioneers (since 1913) in the birth and development of the domestic turboenergy machine building, the founder of the agricultural industry (since 1924) and to this day - the flagship of the domestic tractor industry in the segment of powerful tractors. The plant was the first in the world to organize the mass production of heavy tanks (since 1939) and created the world's first tank with a T-80 gas turbine engine (1976). This tradition continues in the modern history of the Kirov factory.

Created by N. I. Putilov in 1873, the joint-stock "Society of Putilov factories" over the next forty-plus years has fully proved its viability. By the beginning of the First World War, the plant had become the most important center of domestic engineering, reached the leading positions in Russia and Europe in locomotive engineering, the production of artillery weapons, shipbuilding, turbine construction.

Putilovtsy were the vanguard of the labor movement in the country. They played an important role in the revolutionary struggle and the events of 1905-1907 and 1917. Over 10,000 Putilov fighters fought on the fronts of the Civil War, 25 combat military units detachments, regiments, battalions, divisions were formed. During the period of collectivization, thousands of factory workers went to the village to create collective farms.

The workers of the Putilov factory played a large role in the revolutionary movement: in 1891 they took an active part in the preparation and conduct of the first revolutionary movement in Russia; during the Revolution of 1905-1907, demonstrations were organized, they engaged in battle with the police and the Cossacks, and, under the leadership of the Bolshevik organization, they set up fighting squads.

In the period 1905-1907, the workers of the Putilov factory organized demonstrations in the struggle for their rights. Engaged in battle with the police and the Cossacks. Created under the leadership of the Bolshevik organization fighting squads.

In January 1905, a strike began at the plant, caused by the illegal dismissal of four workers. After the plant's management, represented by its director, S.I. Smirnov, refused to strike the categorically, the workers of other St. Petersburg enterprises supported the strike. The standoff ended with a mass march of workers on 9 (22 January) 1905 to the Winter Palace. The goal is to present the Tsar with a petition about the social needs of the working people. A peaceful demonstration was met at the approaches to the Winter Palace and shot at point-blank by the military and the Cossacks. In the history of this tragedy called Bloody Sunday, it also marked the beginning of the First Russian Revolution of 1905-1907.

From 1912 to 1914, 108 strikes were held at the Putilov factory. Workers responded to all political events in the country. They opposed the Lena shootings (tragic events of April 4 (17), 1912 at the mines of the Lena gold mining association, located in the area of the city of Bodaibo on the Lena tributary of the Vitim and Olekma rivers). As a result of the strike and the subsequent shooting of workers by government forces, between 250 and 500 people, according to various estimates, suffered, including 107-270 people died.

The workers responded to all political events in the country, opposed the Lena shootings, supported the strike of the Baku workers, played an outstanding role in the overthrow of tsarism in February 1917. During the Great October Socialist Revolution, as part of the Red Guard units, they assaulted the Winter Palace and defended Smolny, captured train stations, bridges. Factory workers took an active part in defending the conquests of the October Revolution during the Civil War and military intervention of 191820. They manufactured armored trains and guns for the Red Army, sent over 10 thousand people to its ranks. It was formed and armed with 25 military units and troops. V.I. Lenin repeatedly visited the plant, M.I.Kalinin (189699) worked here as a turner .




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Page last modified: 16-01-2019 13:13:11 ZULU