In late 1946, immediately after the completion of state trials Il-12 design team SV Ilyushin, continuing to work on improving their passenger aircraft safety of flight, begun to address the complex and a new practice in the world aircraft of the time problem ensure the twin plane after take-off waiver of one engine on takeoff in razbega or immediately after separation from the earth. The need for this is determined by the flight test aircraft IL-12, and the exploitation of vast experience in post-war world fleet of twin passenger aircraft, then consisting largely of aircraft-type DC-3 and the Li-2, in practice, which has flights have been instances where when the engine crew was forced to continue taking off, as well as termination of the take-off was almost impossible, or even much more dangerous than its continuation.
Engineers of Ilyushin Design Bureau designed an aircraft which repeated configuration of IL-12, but had a little bigger size and weight. Aerodynamics was enhanced due to forward-swept wing, which was rather new for that time. Its thickness ratio was extended, which improved integrity and lift performance and lessened the weight. Take-off and landing wing devices were also upgraded. Drag reduction also demanded great efforts. The landing gear retracted twice as faster than on IL-12, and propeller blade of inoperative engine feathered. Nose and main landing gear compartments while extended were equipped with closing panel. Fin area was extended for improving transverse stability at low speed.
Ilyushin engineers also paid attention to improving flight and landing safety of the new aircraft in bad weather conditions. Anti-icing system and flight and navigation equipment were also upgraded. Warmth of engine retraction gas was used against icing and for heating the cabin. Due to this solution there was no need in fuel-fired heater and it enhanced fire safety. And thought the serial engines with inconsiderable increase of take-off power were left on the aircraft, running on ground, height and speed gain were faster.
The demand for passenger aircraft, likely to ensure the safe completion of the take-off after engine failure, it is becoming increasingly acute with the growing volume of passenger traffic in the air. But for such a passenger aircraft without deteriorating performance of its economic efficiency in the operation was to address a number of difficult technical problems. The main feature of the IL-14 was in its aerodynamic design, developed jointly with the TsAGI. By reducing drag on the airplane at takeoff, calculations showed that the new aircraft will be able to safely take off with a dead engine in all operating conditions
In 1950, using the IL-12 aircraft operating experience, the ILYUSHIN team produced the IL-14 airplane that had better flight characteristics and higher passenger comfort level. A popular transport plane, Ilyushin Il-14 had improved aerodynamic characteristics had significant changes and improved design and increased traction as compared with its predecessor, IL-12. This airplane's design merits, its excellent flight and technical-and-economic features were verified and confirmed with its large-scale and continuous service within scientific expeditions to the North and South Poles and its trouble-free operation in various climatic and weather conditions.The first flight of an experimental Il-14P was 01 October 1950. For the first time in the country, dangerous complex testing with one-engine take-off were carried out by V.K.Kokkinaki, Chief-pilot of Ilyushin Design Bureau. Starting with this aircraft, they began obligatory for the further testings of all multi-engine passenger aircraft, without any exception. The flights demonstrated safety and easy maintenance of the plane, efficiency of the technical decisions made. With one engine broken out, safe take off with gross weight was provided. The aircraft could make a long horizontal flight with one operating engine and landing gear extended.
In 1952 the aircraft with the name IL-14 was put into mass production. Serial production was originally developed at the Moscow plant "Banner of Labor, then at the Tashkent aviation plant VP Chkalov. Approximately 3,500-3,600 Il-14 were produced for both military and civilian use, which included nearly 40 modifications. It was mass manufactured not only in the Soviet Union but the plane was also built under license in the GDR (built 80 units) and Czechoslovakia (203) as well. In November 1954 began regular service in the IL-14 in Aeroflot: first on the trunk, and since the beginning of 1960 (after the introduction of the An-10 and IL-18) - at the local air liniyah. Il-14 is widely exported and exploited in the civil airlines and the Air Force 31 countries around the world.
So Aeroflot received an exclusive aircraft, which was for a long time a willing horse for the airlines. IL-14 was flying all over the world, winning love and admiration everywhere. Able to land and take-off from small ground airfield, safe and comfortable in operation, it became a flying intercity bus. Demand in such transportation was so big that the number of carried passengers was constantly rising. First it was 18, then 24, then 38. Czechoslovakian aviation workers overcame others, when they managed to place 40 passengers in the aircraft.
In 1955, the Il-14P aircraft began to be used, during which the visit of the government delegation of the Soviet Union headed by N.S. Khrushchev to India, Burma (Myanmar) and Afghanistan. During the visit, the aircraft overcame a distance of about 22,500 km. The pilots of the 2nd Aviation Red Banner Special Purpose Division (AKDON) piloted the aircraft, one of whose regiments served the government. Until 1956, the highest leaders of the USSR flew on airplanes piloted by air force officers.
At the Il-14P in July 1955, the USSR delegation flew to Geneva, where, 10 years after Potsdam, the heads of state and government of the four great powers met. For the first time since the war, NS. Khrushchev flew to Western Europe. Flew as the first person of the Soviet state, the leader of the countries of the socialist community. Given Khrushchev's ambitiousness, his painful suspiciousness, those who prepared the visit, tried to foresee and warn any detail that could directly or indirectly damage his prestige, spoil the impression of the meeting.
But the mood was spoiled at the airport. The modest twin-engine Il-14P looked like a "mosquito", in comparison with the four-engine "Air Force No. 1", on which US President Eisenhower flew, by military aircraft E. Eden and E. For. According to Khrushchev's son, Sergei, his father "did not get rid of the humiliation experienced by him at the moment the Soviet delegation landed in Geneva".
Returning to Moscow, N.S. Khrushchev assembled the leading aircraft designers A.N. Tupolev, O.K. Antonova and S.V. Ilyushin. From the emotional performance of the First Secretary, one thing was clear: "Ten years ago it was not a shame, everyone flew on airplanes of this class, but now ...". It does not fit the head of the great state to shake on the Il-14 piston!
Il-14 CRATE - Design
There were about 40 modifications of IL-14: passenger, transport, ambulance, flying laboratory… the aircraft was being built under license in German Democratic Republic and Czechoslovakia. Operation within Polar aviation should be noted. Simple, able to take off and land at small ice platforms, it was operated in the hardest weather conditions, in thin air and extreme temperatures – 70°C, with heavy icing.
The later modification IL-14 became the workhorse of Soviet Aeroflot in the 1950's, until 1959 when the IL-18 started its flights. IL-14 used by the airlines of many countries and were armed with all the allies the Soviet Union, as well as in Algeria, Egypt, India and Yugoslavia. In the operation the aircraft the time between repairs has been brought from the original 1000 flight hours to 3500 hours, and the operating life from 3000 flight hours to 35,000 hours. At the beginning of the 1990s, several Il-14 were in use in Arctic Russia, as well as in China and North Korea.
"Salons" were built in aircraft plants in a special way - outside the main conveyor, in the special assembly areas, under the technical control of military acceptance and operational - the State Security Committee. This was the requirement for reliability of aircraft used in the government squad number 235 and departmental aviation. Re-equipment and decoration of the showrooms were also handled by special teams, the work was carried out according to an individual project coordinated with the customer's representative and (in the case of aircraft for the 235th detachment) by the 9th KGB Directorate. Prior to the transfer to operation in the government air squad, the new aircraft had to fly for some time on regular lines, so that the inevitable "childhood illnesses" emerged during operation.
The wings are low-mounted and have straight leading edges and forward-tapered trailing edges with blunt tips. Two piston engines are mounted in and extending beyond the wings' leading edges. The fuselage is long, cigar-shaped, and tapered to the rear section, featuring a rounded, solid nose and stepped cockpit. The tail flats are mid-mounted on the body and back-tapered with rounded tips. The large fin is tapered, with a square tip and a small fairing in the leading edge.Flight and navigation equipment includes two radio compasses ARK -5, low-altitude radar altimeter RV-2, the instrument landing system Materik with the range-finder SD 1, marker receiver MRP-48P, gyrohorizon AGK-475, gyrocompass [GPK]-48, and magnetic compass Ci-11. The composition of communication equipment is connected radio station RSB-D, the command station RSGz-G) and RSIU-ZM, Fixed-wing talkies SPU-10. The aircraft was actively applied for ice reconnaissance; it was on the North and South poles. It participated in providing unheard-of history Arctic experiments: voyage of atomic ice-breaker “Arktika” and ski tour through ice to the North Pole. So far fully-featured substitute to this aircraft in high latitudes hasn’t been found. IL-14 operated in the sky till the beginning of 1990. Long and glorious life! This aircraft had a great influence on technical equipment of airports and service system of aviation fleet. These provided development of national civil aviation, its switch to a new level: with the appearance of IL-14 civil aviation became one of the main types of passenger transport. It is surprising, but there still are IL-14 appropriate for operation. There are enthusiasts, who are ready to spend all their free time on reconstruction of these gorgeous aircraft. A whole team of fellow-thinkers of “Albatros Aero” aviation-sport club reconstruct two IL-14T, called “Blue dream” at former Tushino airdrome and in Stupino.
- IL-14 - the first series changed.
- IL-14P: the original commercial version for 18-26 passengers.
- IL-14PS, IL-14S, IL-14SI and IL-14SO - options to transport VIPs.
- IL-14M: Option extended fuselage, accommodating 30-32 [others say 24-28] passengers.
- IL-14T: symbol cargo version of passenger aircraft.
- IL-14TB - the option to tow gliders landing.
- IL-14TS - ambulance version.
- IL-14-30D, IL-14TD and IL-14T-TD - landing options.
- IL-14G - a cargo version of IL-14M.
- IL-14 LIC-1 and IL-14 LIC-2 - flying laboratory for the study of various on-board equipment.
- IL-14 patrol - option for border KGB.
- IL-14FKP and IL-14FKM - aerofotosemschiki
- Air 14/Avia 14P: IL-14 and IL-14P production CSSR.
- Air 14-32: Il-14M production CSSR in the 32-seat configuration.
- Air 14T: the cargo version of the aircraft IL-14M, built in the CSSR with a large cargo hatch on the left side of the fuselage.
- Air 14FG: Option topographic aircraft.
- Air 14-42: increase and a sealed version took off in 1960.
- IL-14 Crate-C - built in Poland licensed version of IL-14 aircraft with electronic countermeasures, was first demonstrated in 1979.
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