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Ilyushin Il-12 Coach

Passenger and cargo planes with the letters IL painted on their hulls can often be seen roaming the skies over Russia and the international airspace. IL stands for the world-famous Ilyushin aircraft designers named after the outstanding Russian plane maker Sergei Ilyushin. Ilyushin is one of the leading aeronautical establishments in the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. The main concern is the production of military transport, tanker and AWACS planes, wide body passenger jets and business jets.

It was founded in 1933 with the name of OKB Ilyushin (OKB=Special Construction Bureau) at Menjinski plant. It was then moved to Moscow. The first important work of the organization was was the DB-3 long range bomber which were produced in 1935 with a production quantity of 1538 planes. It was followed by another bomber Il-4 and in 1940 by the ground attack plane Il-2. Il-2 is one of the most successfull planes of the time. During the war time 6,800 DB-3 and IL-4 were built and 42,000 IL-2 armored ground support aircraft.

The war was in full play, but the government thought about the peaceful sky. The DC-3 and LI-2 Aircraft were completely old, and a plane with outstanding characteristics was needed. Ilyushin Design Bureau started to design a new aircraft in 1943, and in victorious 1945 a test model flew to the sky, which further got a name IL-12. It was a solid middle-range passenger aircraft.

n 1943, long before the Victory, realizing that after the war the country would need a civilian passenger plane better than the LI-2 (DS-3), Ilyushin starts work on the IL-12. In 1946 the Il-12 was launched by Aeroflot. So in the Soviet Union appeared the first domestic aircraft for mass passenger transportation, and in the OKB a new direction of work - passenger aircraft. Il-12 was also produced in the military transport variant.

But in the first months of operation an incident happened at Vnukovo airdrome, which showed Achilles heel of two-engine passenger aircraft. One of engines broke out during run of the new aircraft, which was carrying children to Adler. The flight had been stopped immediately. No accident happened due to nose gear, and the nosing over didnt happen. The aircraft was short of power for guaranteed take-off with only one engine.

Deliveries started in 1947. The total production of IL-12 more than 2000 aircraft. By the time it was withdrawan from the production in 1953 in favor of IL-14, it had received the NATO code name Coach. The later modification IL-14 became the workhorse of Soviet Aeroflot in the 1950's, until 1959 when the IL-18 started its flights.

After the end of WWII, OKB Ilyushin concentrated its works on passenger and transport planes. The family of civil IL planes started with IL-12, launched in mass production in 1946, and later followed by IL-14, IL-18, IL-62... The development of twin-transport aircraft Ilyushin Il-12 began in 1943. Wartime commitments delayed the building of prototypes, and the first flight took place only in early 1946. The Il-12 is all-metal, featuring two star-shaped engines AL-82FNV, the plane had a crew of four people, and the cabin, accommodating 27 passengers. Later the number of seats increased to 32. The military version added a cargo hatch with the double-doors on the far left side of the fuselage, as well as machine guns, fired through the windows of what had been the passenger compartment.

The maximum speed at an altitude of 2500 meters (8200 feet) of 407 kilometers per hour (253 miles / hour), a practical ceiling 6700 meters (22,000 feet); range 2000 kilometers (1250 miles). Weights: empty curb - 9000 kg (19,800 lbs) maximum takeoff 17,250 kg (38,000 pounds). Dimensions: wingspan 31.7 meters (104 feet) length of 21.31 meters (69 feet 11 inches); area 100 sq. meters (1076.43 square. ft).

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