9K317M Buk-M3 anti-aircraft missile
The Russian Armed forces will receive Buk-M3 air defense missile systems before the end of 2015, a source at Russia’s Defense Ministry told TASS on 08 March 2015. "Until the end of the year on weapons of air defense forces ground forces planned to take the newest anti-aircraft missile system" Buk- M3 "medium-range, in 2016 it will begin to enter the army," - said the source. It is assumed that the new complex will continue to range anti-aircraft missile systems "Buk". Modification "Buk-M2" is now considered one of the most efficient in its class. Its development was completed in 1988, but to deploy serial production was only 15 years later.
“Buk-M3” (factory index 9K317M) is a medium-range air defense system. The data of the air defense missile system according to NATO classification are called SA-17 Grizzly. The highly mobile multifunctional complex is designed to solve the following combat missions: the destruction of aircrafts of all types in all ranges of their practical use, the firing of radio-contrast ground targets and the destruction of surface targets under conditions of intense opposition, both fire and radio-electronic.
Military experts attribute the complex to the category of fixed assets of the military component of the OPS / Air Defense of the Russian Federation in the theater of operations and are considered as a backbone. On the tactical side, it is complemented by a short-range complex of the Tor-M2 type (at present) or Pantsir-C1 (in the near future). From the operational-tactical - long-range missiles of all classes in service. “Buk-M3” as the main means of counteracting the Kyrgyz Republic, flying at ultra-low altitude, demonstrates the best ratio of “cost-effectiveness” in comparison with all analogues of Russian and foreign production.
The air defense missile system is equipped with the latest CEC, which provides not only the solution of combat missions, but also the work in the training simulator mode for the education and training of crews. The tele-thermal system replaced the tele-optical sightings and is used to detect targets, their acquisition and passive tracking in automatic mode. The documentation system has been replaced by an integrated system of objective control, created on the basis of modern software using the latest CEC.
Signal processing and display equipment is also computerized and equipped with LCD monitors. For communication, modern digital communication facilities are installed on the complex, providing uninterrupted exchange of both voice information and coded data of target distribution and target designation.
Each division, armed with a Buk-M3 air defense missile system, has 36 target channels and is equipped with the latest models of rockets with active GOS. The complex has a wide range due to the fact that the new rocket has a vertical start. The 9R31M missile used to equip the complex is capable of destroying all currently existing aerodynamic targets, including highly manoeuvrable, under conditions of strong electronic countermeasures, also surface and ground. The onboard systems of the Buk-M3 complex are built on a fully updated element base. When supplying for the fleet of the Russian Federation, the complex is called "Hurricane". The export name of the sea version is “Calm”.
9K317M "Buk-M3" was developed by the Research Institute of Instrument named after VVTikhomirov . Chief designer of the air defense system EA Pigin. The development of the air defense system began in 1990. Tests of an air defense missile system with missile launches were conducted at the Kapustin Yar test site in 2005-2011. In 2011, state tests of the 9K317M air defense system with a 9M317M missile defense system were conducted. In particular, a successful launch of the "Flight" UAV target was held on December 14, 2011.
The rocket of the 9M317M complex was first shown at the international exhibition Defendory International - 2006 in Greece. At the end of 2013, the media stated that the entry of the Buk-M3 air defense system into the Russian Armed Forces is planned for 2016. In October 2016, the first division of the Buk-M3 air defense system was delivered to the Armed Forces of the country. The 9M317M missile has been produced by Dolgoprudny NPP since 2006.
The fourth-generation Viking mid-range air defense system (index 9K317M) is the next step in the development of the Buk family air defense system, the first models of which were put into service in 1980. Compared with the Buk-M2E air defense system, which is successfully exported to this day, the Viking air defense system has a number of key differences.
First of all, the complex received a new ZUR 9M317ME located in a transport and launch container that allows protecting the ZUR equipment from damage and adverse climatic conditions. Rocket propulsion system is a single-mode solid fuel engine. The mass of missiles at the Buk-M2E missile system was reduced from 710 to 600 kg, the maximum speed was increased from 1,200 to 1,520 m / s, respectively.
The complex is equipped with 9R31M (9M317M) missiles with a high-explosive fragmentation warhead developed by the Almaz-Antey concern produced by Dolgoprudnensky NPP, which has a higher speed and can withstand large lateral overloads compared to the Buk-M2 missile. The missile is equipped with an inertial control system with active radar homing, which allows you to attack highly maneuverable targets in conditions of strong radio resistance, hit all existing aerodynamic targets, ground and surface targets or operational-tactical missiles. The rocket engine starts on the main dual-mode (start-march) solid propellant rocket motor.
The use of a new missile defense system made it possible to increase the impact zone of aerodynamic targets with the Viking complex to 65 km. At the same time, the development of a new multi-function radar station, the introduction of new technical solutions in the radar information processing system allowed an increase in the number of target channels of the Viking air defense system to 36.
The simultaneous shelling of 36 targets flying from any direction inevitably requires an increase in the ammunition carrying capacity. Self-propelled fire installation (SOU) complex "Viking" has 6 missiles ready to launch. In addition, the possibility is still to give the SOU one launcher (PU), and to the radar illumination and guidance (RPN) - two PU.
It should be particularly noted that as part of the Buk-M2E air defense missile system, the launch-charging unit (ROM) had 8 missiles, 4 of them are ready for launch, and 4 are being charged instead of those put on the SDU or on the ROM itself. The newly developed PU Viking missile system has 12 missiles, ready for launch and placed on two swinging parts in packages from two TPKs with a fixed launch angle of 45 degrees. Introducing new technical solutions, the developers of the air defense system provided also wide possibilities for integrating the property already delivered to foreign customers into a single information exchange with the air defense system Viking, which will allow:
- to increase the maximum target range to 130 km and the height of the defeat to 30 km (using PU type 9A383ME from the Antey-2500 air defense missile system);
- Attach a SOW (RPN) from the Viking air defense system to a ROM from the Buk-M2E air defense system (using the 9M317 SAM missile). Thus, it is possible to use three types of missiles as part of one division (9M317ME, 9M317, 9M83ME);
- increase the target detection area to 360 km (when using the Sky-SVU meter 1L119 radar);
- to create a full-fledged echeloned air defense system (when working in conjunction with the Tor-M2E air defense system).
In addition, a “viewing station” mode has been added to the Viking air defense system, which allows the SOW (RPN) to conduct simultaneous tracking of up to 10 targets with the issuance of routes to the PBU (no targets are fired at this mode). Combat facilities of the complex, means of repair and maintenance at the request of a foreign customer can be installed on the tracked or wheeled chassis of high traffic or transport modules.
These characteristics and capabilities of the Viking air defense system allow us to confidently consider it one of the best means of protection against the enemy’s existing and prospective EIA today. In combination with the meter-delivered radar systems and launchers of long-range and short-range systems, the Viking air defense system is truly a universal anti-aircraft defense weapon for troops and the country's most important facilities.
|Range of action, km||2.5–70|
|Target height, km||0,015–35|
|Maximum target speed, m / s||3000|
|missile guidance||inertial control system with a semi-active radar homing head (GOS)|
|warhead||high-explosive fragmentation rod warhead with a remote radar fuse.|
|number of target channels of the division||36|
|Launcher||self-propelled fire installation (SOU)|
|number of missiles on the SOU||6|
|Type of vehicles||tracked, self-propelled|
|composition of the complex||
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