BMP-1AM Basurmanin Fighting Vehicle
This infantry fighting vehicle is considered one of the best options for upgrading obsolete first generation vehicles. The BMP-1AM features an existing combat module as part of the upgrade project. This system, which has machine-gun and cannon armament, was proposed to be borrowed from the BTR-82A serial armored personnel carrier. The Basurmanin project, like the previous options for upgrading the BMP-1, provides for the replacement of only individual units while maintaining all other structural elements. So, the existing armored corps with part of its equipment remains unchanged. The layout of the internal volumes, as expected, does not change.
Despite significant changes and the installation of new units, the BMP-1AM is almost the same in size and weight as the existing equipment. The installation of a new combat module leads to a slight increase in the height of the vehicle. At the same time, the combat weight increases to 14.3 tons. Driving characteristics, mobility and maneuverability remain at the level of the base sample.
The list of shortcomings of the BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicle in general and its weapons in particular had long been well known. The 2A28 main gun does not have the highest performance, which may not be sufficient to solve the task. In addition, the real capabilities of the machine are seriously limited by a gun mount with limited aiming angles. All these shortcomings were taken into account when developing the next infantry fighting vehicle. The BMP-2 retained the existing chassis, but received a completely new combat module with fundamentally different weapons. In the mid-seventies, comparative tests were carried out, during which the new BMP-2 showed the most serious advantages over the older model. The higher efficiency of the 30 mm automatic cannon had been confirmed by practice.
In February 2022, the motorized rifle formation of the combined arms army of the Eastern Military District in the Amur region was replenished with new models of equipment. Infantry fighting vehicles BMP-1AM "Basurmanin" replaced the BMP-1s in service (in the army they are called "penny"). The exact number of infantry fighting vehicles was not named, but it was noted that the batch will be large. The next step could be a full serial modernization of the machine.
After the Great Patriotic War, the USSR remained the world leader in the production of tanks, but lagged behind Western countries in terms of the number of armored personnel carriers produced. However, instead of catching up and overtaking America in the race for armored personnel carriers, the Soviet defense industry developed a new type of vehicle for the prompt delivery of infantry personnel to the battlefield. The world's first infantry fighting vehicle (BMP-1) designed by Pavel Isakov was supposed to perform the same functions as an armored personnel carrier, but at the same time it was better armed and had stronger armor.
The first sample of the BMP-1 was built in 1966 at the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant, and in total from 1966 to 1983, the Soviet defense industry produced about 20,000 infantry fighting vehicles of the first sample. A huge amount of "kopecks" was exported to China, Mongolia, the countries of the Middle East, Europe and Africa. One example of the reliability of a Soviet vehicle is the BMP-1, which is in service with the Syrian army. Some samples are over 40 years old, but they are still actively involved in battles with ISIS.
The BMP-1 is still in service with the Russian army, and the Ministry of Defense is not going to write them off yet. As of 2022, Russian Ground Forces operated some 500 BMP-1s, 700 BRM-1Ks (with an additional 7,000 BMP-1s in storage) and some ARVs based on the BMP-1. In addition, about 7,000 BMP-1s continue to operate the armed forces and formations in more than 30 countries around the world.
The most expensive part in an armored vehicle is an armored capsule. If it was not physically damaged, then it can last at least 50 years. Inside, designers can put modern electronics, a new engine and transmission, etc. As a result, with a rather modest investment, we get a highly effective means for conducting combat operations. Today, many well-preserved first infantry fighting vehicles have accumulated at the storage bases of Russian armed forces, which would be modernized by Russian repair plants and subsequently not only sent to Russian troops, but also for export.
In 2018, at the international military-technical forum "Army", the research and production corporation "Uralvagonzavod" (part of Rostec) presented another project for the modernization of an infantry fighting vehicle with a 30-millimeter combat module BMP-1AM "Basurmanin". According to Rostec, one of the most popular infantry fighting vehicles in the world has received the latest weapons system, modern electronics and a more powerful power plant, which has led to a significant improvement in its combat performance.
“One of the most popular infantry fighting vehicles in the world received a new weapon system, modern electronics and a more powerful power plant, which led to a significant improvement in its combat characteristics,” Rostec said.
Sergey Abramov, who then held the post of industrial director of the Rostec weapons cluster, emphasized that after upgrading to the level of Basurmanin, the BMP-1 "has, in fact, received a second life." He also noted that due to the prevalence of these combat vehicles throughout the world, the new modernization package will be popular with foreign customers. “This approach is attractive, including for foreign customers, since an upgrade is much cheaper than new equipment. In total, more than 20 thousand BMP-1s were produced during the production period by Uralvagonzavod. Almost two-thirds of them are in service with other countries,” Abramov said.
Shortly after the Army-2018 forum, the Uralvagonzavod Corporation announced that it was preparing to begin a large-scale modernization program for the BMP-1 to the level of the BMP-1AM "Basurmanin" as part of a "long-term contract."
It was decided first of all to equip the BMP-1 with a more versatile main weapon that could also hit low-flying air targets, including drones, which are increasingly being used by militants of terrorist organizations. Instead of the 73mm Grom smoothbore gun in the turret characteristic of the BMP-1, the Basurmanin is equipped with a weapon station with a 30mm 2A72 automatic stabilized cannon. Experts note that at one time the Thunder gun had good characteristics, but now it no longer meets the requirements of the modern battlefield due to the low initial velocity of the projectile, accuracy of fire and limited aiming angles. If the Thunder is an anti-tank gun, then it is not powerful enough, and for firing at infantry and other things, it is not fast enough.
“In fact, it was a slightly modified SPG-9 anti-tank grenade launcher. By itself, this is already a rather obsolete type of weapon, and in terms of accuracy and range of fire, it does not match the capabilities of modern artillery systems. At the same time, a 30-mm rapid-fire cannon provides higher accuracy,” Dmitry Kornev, founder of the Military Russia portal, explained.
"Basurmanin" is equipped with a 30-mm combat module from the BTR-82A with an automatic cannon, a PKTM machine gun (a modernized Kalashnikov tank machine gun) of 7.62 mm caliber, a fire control system with a combined anti-aircraft sight, a two-plane weapon stabilizer, as well as an anti-tank missile system "Metis" and the Cloud system, which allows installing camouflage aerosol curtains.
The 2A72 automatic cannon fires 30 mm caliber rounds at an initial velocity of 960 m/s at a rate of fire of 330 rounds per minute. This gun is almost identical to its predecessor 2A42, which is armed with attack helicopters Ka-52 and Mi-28N, the developers emphasize. The new module can be used against lightly armored vehicles and low-flying targets - helicopters and even drones. “Thanks to the new unified fighting compartment, Basurmanin got the opportunity to effectively hit lightly armored vehicles at ranges of up to two kilometers, as well as low-flying air targets, including drones and helicopters,” Rostec noted. The weapon is mounted outside the main dome of the tower, next to it is the ammunition. The shooter's workplace is located under the turret, while the shooter himself almost completely remains under the protection of the hull. The gun is capable of using shells of different types and shows a rate of fire of the order of 330-350 rounds per minute. The effective range of fire depends on the type of target and reaches 3-4 km. The PKTM machine gun is paired with the cannon. Several launchers of the "Cloud" type are installed on the turret body. The automatic cannon has an ammunition load of 300 rounds. For a machine gun, 2000 rounds of ammunition are intended in one tape.
At the disposal of the gunner there is a combined (day-night) sight TKN-4GA. The field of view of the sight is stabilized. Guidance is carried out using a remote control. Electric drives are connected with a two-plane stabilizer. Fire control means provide high accuracy and accuracy of fire during operation at any time of the day and in different weather conditions.
The design of the tower installation provides firing in any direction in azimuth. Vertical aiming is carried out in the range from -5 ° to + 70 °. For comparison, the standard BMP-1 weapon of the basic version could only rise by 30°.
Some sources report that to combat armored enemy targets, the Metis anti-tank missile system is used. But other sources report that the Basurmanin, unlike the base vehicle, does not carry a regular anti-tank missile system, and this to a certain extent reduces its combat potential. Perhaps in the near future, the necessary new means will be introduced into the BMP-1AM project, thanks to which the infantry fighting vehicle will be able to use not only barreled, but also missile weapons. Indeed, publishes photos do not depict an externally mounted missile. In addition, the BMP-1AM is equipped with the Tucha system, which allows the installation of camouflage aerosol curtains.
Also, "Basurmanin" has become more mobile compared to the first generation BMP-1 due to the installation of the UTD-20S1 engine and torsion shafts of increased energy intensity. Engine power is 300 hp. with the maximum speed on the highway - 65 km / h. The driving performance of the machine was improved due to the new diesel engine UTD-20S1 and torsion shafts of increased energy intensity. Replacing the engine is supposed to make the job of the driver and technicians easier. In addition, the joint operation of armored vehicles of various types will also be simplified, since the Basurmanin engine is unified with the BMP-2. The installation of displacement wings allows the "Basurmanin" to confidently stay afloat.
The BMP-1 is not a new vehicle, but thanks to modern equipment, it has, in fact, received a second life. The new engine, improved buoyancy, more powerful weapons have significantly increased the combat capabilities of the armored vehicle. This approach is attractive, including for foreign customers, since the upgrade is much cheaper than new equipment.
According to the manufacturer, the combat characteristics of the gun (2A72) installed on the Basurmanin are almost identical to the 2A42, which is armed with the latest Russian attack helicopters Ka-52 and Mi-28N. The only difference is in the powder gases removal system and the rate of fire, which is reduced to 330 rounds per minute (against 550 for 2A42). This was done to increase the accuracy of fire.
Thanks to the new unified combat compartment, the Basurmanin was able to effectively hit lightly armored vehicles at a distance of up to two kilometers, as well as low-flying air targets, including drones and helicopters. The modern radio station R-168-25U-2 is responsible for communication in the BMP-1AM. It allows "Basurmanin" to connect to modern automated combat control systems. The exchange of information takes place over a secure communication channel with increased protection against interception and decryption of radio data, capable of operating even under the conditions of an enemy electronic attack.
Dmitry Kornev noted that despite the fact that the BMP-1s themselves are already quite outdated, their chassis can be upgraded and used with new combat modules, which results in an up-to-date combat vehicle. “The installation of a 30-mm rapid-fire cannon, a night sight with a thermal imager, and a modern type of anti-tank missiles allows us to seriously modernize an infantry fighting vehicle, and it can be used both in Russian troops and for export. Moreover, the BMP-1 was previously a fairly popular combat vehicle, which was supplied to dozens of countries both in the Soviet and post-Soviet times. This modernization will bring double benefits: for those military units of the RF Armed Forces that use the BMP-1, and for those foreign countries where the BMP-1 is in service, ”the expert noted.
Such an architecture of an armored vehicle greatly simplifies its production, and also reduces the cost of upgrading individual vehicles or entire batches. It also becomes possible to simplify the process of crew training or speed up the retraining of a specialist when switching from one type of equipment to another. Perhaps the BMP-1AM does not attract attention with its technical appearance, but it has serious production and operational potential. The proposed version of the modernization of equipment will allow to continue the operation of existing machines, improve their main characteristics, but at the same time do without the construction of new models. Moreover, it will not even be necessary to launch the production of new units.
Often, projects for the modernization of existing armored vehicles are characterized by excessive novelty and the widespread use of promising units that are not yet in the series. The new Russian project BMP-1AM "Basurmanin" cannot be attributed to this category. Unlike other domestic and foreign developments of its kind, one of its goals was to simplify the modernization as much as possible and reduce the cost of work.
The result was a utilitarian-looking armored vehicle, consisting exclusively of ready-made components. Despite this architecture, it has advantages, at least, over the basic model, and in terms of a number of characteristics it can be compared with later technology. The practical approach has yielded remarkable results.
In addition to Russia, almost four dozen foreign countries from a number of regions of the world operate infantry fighting vehicles BMP-1 in various quantities. Their fleet of vehicles is much more modest than Russian, but even in this case, armored vehicles may need to be repaired and updated. A simple and cheap modernization project should be of interest to foreign military who would like to upgrade their materiel, but do not have the opportunity to buy modern expensive models. About 1500 different nationalities live in Russia's multinational world. Each of them has its own characteristics - cultural, religious, linguistic. All nationalities have their common names. But, despite this, under the influence of various factors, most of them also have unofficial nicknames that were awarded to them by neighbors, fraternal peoples, or, conversely, enemies. Playful, kind, caustic - each of them has its own history of occurrence. One dated, derogatory meaning is "Muslim", while another dated, derogatory meaning is a person of a different religion (non-Christian or non-Orthodox). It is believed that the word "Basurman" was originally formed from the distorted "Muslim".
Basurmanin is the name of an army survival knife HB-1. In 1991, IzhMash OJSC, after lengthy improvements and testing, completed the received technical assignment for the design of a tool for the army, combining the functions of a survival knife and a combat knife.
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