Hermes - Izdeliye 70 / 305 (Product 70 / 305)
Hermes LMUR (Lyogkaya Mnogotselevaya Upravlaemaya Raketa – lightweight multi-target guided rocket) is a prospective Russian guided missile weapon system developed at the Instrument Design Bureau in Tula, in cooperation with NIIFP. Tests of the aircraft version of the Hermes-A complex as part of the armament of the Ka-52 attack helicopter were completed in summer 2003. Complex "Hermes-A" was ready for serial production, but by 2020 no customers had been forthcoming.
The rocket of the Hermes complex is a two - stage bicaliber supersonic guided missile. The GRAU index of the rocket is not yet reliably known. The missile outwardly resembles the 57E6E missile of the Pantsir-S1 air defense system. The caliber of the accelerator differs depending on the flight range and can be either 170 mm or 210 mm. The complex is designed to destroy modern and promising objects of armored vehicles, unarmored vehicles, stationary engineering structures, surface targets, low-flying low-speed air targets, manpower in shelters.
"Hermes" is a multipurpose anti-tank missile system / multipurpose guided weapon system. This complex has been developed by the Tula Instrument-Making Design Bureau since the mid-1990s. The Hermes rocket with a detachable starting engine has a universal high-explosive fragmentation warhead. The controls are aerodynamic rudders.
Analysis of publications in the press as of 1996 made it possible to conclude that the development of a "promising aviation ATGM" in the Instrument Design Bureau (hereinafter - KBP, Tula) under the leadership of A.G. Shipunov was already underway at that time. Tests of the aviation version of the Hermes-A ATGM as part of the Ka-52 helicopter armament were completed in summer 2003. The Hermes-A ATGM was prepared for serial production. On August 23, 2009, the head of the KBP delegation at the MAKS-2009 air show, Yuri Savenkov, said that in 2010 the helicopter version of the complex would undergo flight tests and be put into service. Serial production for the needs of the Russian Ministry of Defense for arming the Ka-52 and Mi-28N helicopters was planned to be launched in 2011-2012.
A combined missile control system - inertial or radio command (when firing at a distance of up to 100 km) at the march stage and the seeker at the final stage of the trajectory. The "fire and forget" principle has been released. At the same time, it is possible to hit two targets when using missiles with semi-active laser seeker or up to 12 missiles in a salvo when using other types of seeker. With radio command guidance on the marching stage, the complex includes a radar and a compand transmission station.
The control system ATGM "Hermes-S" and "Hermes-A" / "Klevok-A" ensures the destruction of ground armored targets from above to the central part. This also ensures the overcoming of air defense and missile defense systems. It is possible to use external means of target designation with a laser designator - a mobile portable complex of automated fire control means "Malakhit", UAVs, etc. EPR target area - from 0.01 m2.
For long firing ranges (up to 100 km), the missile is equipped with an increased caliber launch stage. Control system - combined: at the initial stage of flight, the rocket is controlled by an inertial system (for versions with a flight range of 15-18 km) or a radio command system (for versions with a flight range of 40 and 100 km), in the final section, the missile is semi-active homing at the target by laser radiation reflected from it or other types of homing. Target designation for "Hermes" can be issued by both their own control vehicles mounted on a tracked armored chassis and capable of operating directly in battle formations, as well as manned and unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with appropriate equipment, as well as infantrymen with a mobile portable complex of automated fire control means " Malachite". Combined-arms reconnaissance assets can also be used for target designation. This provides Hermes with high flexibility of use and a short reaction time to a fire call. mounted on a tracked armored chassis and capable of operating directly in battle formations, as well as manned and unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with appropriate equipment, as well as infantrymen with a mobile remote complex of automated fire control "Malachite".
The complex equipment includes:
- a stabilized day-night optoelectronic system with television and thermal imaging channels (information exchange standard MIL STD 1553);
- an associated computer system with a two-channel laser designator and automatic target tracking;
- additional equipment - multifunctional color liquid crystal display and control panel, display and documentation facilities.
According to data for 1996, a complex of guidance systems on a carrier was supposed to be multi-channel - at least 4 channels for targets, automated. Target detection and tracking range - up to 15 km. The missiles were supposed to use different types of seeker - laser seeker (semi-active laser guidance) and combined IR + semi-active millimeter-wave radar guidance; the use of missiles with both types of seeker on the same carrier would make it possible to confidently hit targets, both contrasting and not having contrast in different wavelength ranges; also as of 1996, a "laser trail" type control system was being developed - the target is illuminated from the carrier, the seeker on the rocket "catches" the beam from the carrier and corrects the missile's flight.
Controls are aerodynamic rudders. Warhead is a universal high-explosive fragmentation warhead of increased power with an adaptive fuse with a different (depending on the type of target) detonation delay is used on the rocket. It is possible that a cumulative warhead for the complex will not be developed. As of 2010, different types of warheads had been developed for ATGMs; for export supplies, only the version with an OFB is advertised.
Tests of the aviation version were completed in 2003, and for the first time the complex was demonstrated to the general public on February 22, 2009. Designed to engage single and group targets (including tanks, engineering and fortifications, surface targets and low-speed aircraft) with single or multiple launch fires at ranges up to 100 km. The aviation version of the complex has a range of up to 20 km, but this sharply reduces the losses of aviation from MANPADS and short-range air defense systems of the Osa-M class. The complex is adapted for various basing options ("Hermes" - ground-based launchers, "Hermes-A" - an aircraft version, "Hermes-K" - a shipborne version, "Hermes-S" - a stationary version for coastal defense), and is a unified solution high - precision rocket artillery for all combat arms.
"Hermes" opens up new areas of combat use of anti-tank weapons - the transfer of its fire into the depths of the zone of action of enemy units and the possibility of repelling an attack in any sector of defense without changing the firing position. This will prevent the advance and deployment of enemy armored subunits to the lines of attack while reducing their own losses. The use of such tactics poses the task of radically expanding the range of reconnaissance and destruction of armored units with promising anti-tank systems, which should be able to cover the entire area of ??responsibility of their units for reconnaissance and defeat of the enemy to the full depth of the close tactical zone (25-30 km).
The latest Hermes long-range anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM) are capable of hitting targets at a distance of up to 30 km, while the most effective helicopter ATGMs - "Attack", "Whirlwind" and Hellfire - this figure does not exceed 10 km. Hermes can be deployed on ground tracked vehicles as well as on helicopters and ships. The use of "Hermes" in Syria will not only allow testing a unique missile system in battle, but also demonstrate the novelty to potential buyers, primarily Egypt.
The Tula Instrument-Making Design Bureau has been developing and testing the latest ATGM since the mid-1990s. Despite the fact that the Hermes is officially called an anti-tank missile, it is a versatile product capable of striking a wide range of targets, including buildings, field fortifications and enemy personnel. the missile's key feature is the ability to track and destroy over-the-horizon targets. Due to its infrared homing and laser guidance capabilities, it can hit enemy armored vehicles autonomously, even if they are out of sight of the helicopter crew.
Hermes-K can be installed on amall and medium displacement surface ships to fulfill customs duties, patrol and combat operations in littoral and territorial waters. Depending on ship class, missile module is installed on the self-contained launcher or on the AK-306 gun mount modified for missiles application.
Hermes missile is equipped with a combined guidance system capable of detecting enemy targets even in the most difficult weather conditions. The Hermes has a combined homing head (GOS) with an infrared sensor and a laser guidance channel,” says Kornev. - The target of the rocket can be "illuminated" from the ground. That is, an aircraft controller, a helicopter or an airplane will aim a laser beam at the target, and the Hermes seeker will “see” the laser spot and take the target. But if the laser has no backlight, then infrared sensors come into action, which will detect enemy targets by the heat generated. In the future, miniature radar stations may appear on Hermes missiles, which, in combination with infrared guidance, will ensure the unique accuracy of the latest products.
The two-stage design of the Hermes is largely unified with the design of the Pantsir-S anti-aircraft missile system. The launch stage accelerates the missile and brings it to the target area, after which it is separated from the product. Then the war unit comes into play, which is already looking for a target, and then destroys. The disadvantage of this arrangement is the large weight of the rocket. According to reports, the product weighs more than 90 kg, while the "Whirlwind" ATGM is half the weight.
Currently, only one anti-tank missile system - the Israeli Spike-NLOS - was capable of hitting targets at a distance of several tens of kilometers. Developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Spike had long been the most secret weapon in the IDF's arsenal. Israeli ATGMs are installed not only on ground launchers, but also on helicopters, and even on boats and small ships. Spike-NLOS was created in the 1980s to combat the massive tank attacks of the Egyptian army. Hermes and Spike are designed to solve the same tactical problems.
Ka-52K attack helicopters deployed on the Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier will test-fire test the latest Hermes extreme-range anti-tank guided missiles for the first time in Syria in the battle with Islamic State, the daily newspaper Izvestiya reported 26 October 2016. "Tests in a combat environment will help finalize the missile system, which should become a standard weapon for Russia's Alligator military helicopters," the newspaper said, citing a source in the Russian military-industrial complex. "It was decided to test the Hermes in more difficult, shipborne air operations."
The first known picture of the Hermes date from 2013, when it was shown with the Mi-28MN attack helicopter, showing a system resembling the current Shturm and Ataka anti-tank missiles. The Russian modernized attack helicopter Mi-28NM will receive a new guided missile “product 305” with a target range of over 25 km. This was reported to TASS on 20 March 2019 by a source in the aircraft building complex. “For the Mi-28NM, a new missile is being created, the“ product 305 ”, designed for round-the-clock destruction of armored vehicles and reinforced concrete fortifications. The range of missile use is more than 25 km,” the agency’s source said. The source added that one helicopter can carry up to eight such missiles (four on each pylon).
According to the interlocutor, the rocket will fly to the target according to the onboard inertial navigation system, information about the location of the target will be entered into the memory of the system at the time of launch from a helicopter. The Mi-28NM, in turn, will receive the coordinates of the target from its own means of detection or from a single troop control system. In the final leg of the flight, the source explained, "the new rocket will include a homing head to detect the target in a given area and defeat it." The helicopter will be able to receive the video signal from the rocket via a protected information and command radio line, the source added.
At the moment, the maximum range of destruction of Russian guided missiles for helicopters reaches 15 km, as reported by Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu on March 11 at a meeting of the State Duma defense committee. The minister then noted that the range of use of helicopter missiles was increased following the results of the antiterrorist operation in Syria.
The use of external reconnaissance and target designation means, including those deployed on remotely piloted aircraft (RPV), allows the most complete implementation of the main provisions of the concept of "contactless war", to reduce the time frame and expand the range of tasks to be solved with the involvement of the minimum required number of forces and means, and also minimize material costs for operations.
The Instrument-Making Design Bureau JSC (part of the High-Precision Complexes holding of the Rostec State Corporation) present for the first time a new-generation Hermes high-precision missile system with a firing range of up to 100 km at the Army-2020 forum. TASS was informed about it in the press service of "High-precision complexes". "At the upcoming forum" Army-2020 "as part of the exposition of JSC" KBP ", for the first time, the Hermes high-precision guided weapons complex with an over-the-horizon firing range of up to 100 km will be demonstrated. It is a new generation complex that occupies a niche between guided artillery shells and operational-tactical systems ", - said the holding 18 August 2020.
As the press service specified, the Hermes missile has an autonomous targeting system based on the "fire and forget" principle. "The complex implements a salvo firing mode at several (up to 6) spaced targets, as well as automatic synchronization of laser target designation to hit targets with high-precision ammunition with a miss of no more than 0.5 m," the holding added. The development of the latest anti-tank missile system "Hermes" became known in 2015. As the head of the department of complexes of the Tula Instrument-Making Design Bureau reported at that time, Hermes was developed in two modifications: for hitting a target in the visibility zone at a distance of 20 km, and also out of the line-of-sight zone at a distance of up to 100 km.
"Hermes" is multi-platform and can be installed on air delivery vehicles, as well as on land vehicles and small warships. It is also allowed to use the complex with drone attack.
The newest Russian combat helicopter Mi-28NM will be able to carry up to four long-range cruise missiles, its strike capabilities will be comparable to front-line bombers, a source in the aircraft industry told RIA Novosti. "At present, flight tests of the product 305 helicopter cruise missiles with a maximum range of 100 kilometers are underway. The upgraded Mi-28NM Night Hunter will be able to carry four such missiles on external suspension points," the source said 29 May 2021.
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