An-22 Antei Cock - Design
The AN-22 is a normal aerodynamic scheme with an upstream cantilever wing and two-keel fins. Glider formed mainly of aluminum alloys with titanium. Laminated structures are widely used. The AN-22 is an advanced heavy transport aircraft roughly comparable to the Lockheed C-5A transport subsequently developed in the United States. Soviet sources credited the AN-22, development of which was initiated in the Khrushchev period, with a range of 6000 miles with a 45-ton cargo. A maximum payload of about 176,000 pounds can be carried about 3,100 miles and with a payload of about 100,000 pounds, the range is extended to 6,800 miles. Production was ended in 1975 after 66 aircraft had been delivered to the Soviet Air Force and Aeroflot.
The AN-22 is driven by four 8-bladed contrarotating propellers each powered by 15,000-hp Kuznetsov NK-12 turboprop engines. It is capable of cruising at 740 km/hr for a distance of 11,000 kilometers with a load of 45 tons. The maximum capacity of the hermetically sealed cargo chamber is 80 tons, equivalent to 720 passengers with their hand baggage. Soviet turboprop aircraft achieved high propeller fuel efficiency at speeds approaching those of jet-powered planes.
The AN-22 is completely equipped for bad-weather flying, can take-off and maintain flight with three of its engines, and due to the special construction of its undercarriage (large wheel size and automatically controlled pressure), this aircraft can land on unpaved runways. The take-off distance is stated to be 1100 - 1300 meters.
The An-22 aircraft is intended to airlift heavy and large-size combat materiel and troop forces to long distances, airdrop and airland airborne troops. The aircraft structure peculiarities reside in a two-fin tail unit, considerable cut for a cargo hatch, measuring 4.4x16 m, co-axial propellers with an efficiency exceeding 90%.
The fuselage is circular cross section, semi-monocoque with stressed skin. Fuselage frame consists of a set of stringers, frames and beams. Paneling is made of duralumin sheet thickness 1.2-2.5 mm. Fuselage technologically divided into four sections: the nasal, middle, and tail ending. In the first compartment is double deck cabin crew. On the lower deck in the bow cabin is the navigator on the top - the other crew members. Behind it is a passenger cabin on 21 (29) place, consisting of three forecastles (two on the lower deck and one - on top). Plane crew emergency escape through sloping tunnel.
The second compartment is the sealed cargo compartment length 32.7 m, width 4.4 m and a height of 4.4 m with an excess pressure of 0.25 kgf / cm. The cargo floor with corrugated decking, made of titanium alloy, has a length of 26.4 m ramp inclined ladders installed on different levels, allows loading equipment both from the ground and from the platform or the car body.
The third compartment includes a portion of the cargo compartment, the cargo hatch (size 4.4 x 16 m), closed with a ramp at the rear vent and hermetically section between frames # 95-100. When fully open sash Monorails installed on the outer side of the dock with monorails cargo cabin. The fourth non-watertight compartment forms a tail ending fuselage.
The wing is trapezoidal shape in plan, caisson type, divided by the center-four middle and two detachable parts. Center-and middle parts consist of three spars, ribs set, upper and lower molded panels. Middle parts bear the double-slotted flaps and engines. Detachable part of a set of two-spar ribs, upper and lower power panels. On detachable parts placed with ailerons and servo servokompensatorami. Empennage - cantilever, dvuhkilevoe. Power stabilizer and each set consists of two keel spars, ribs and panels. Elevator and rudder every - single-spar with ribs and chemically milled wainscoting, have servo.
The aircraft is fitted with a multi-strut multi-wheel cross-country landing gear that enables the crew to land the aircraft even in case of break-up of separate strut shock absorbers or tires, or failure in the extension of up to two struts. Landing gear is a tricycle with two main bearings and one front leg. The landing gear main units comprise three independent struts (on each side) with a levered suspension of wheels, 1.72 m in dia. Each main bearing consists of three racks Wishbone two brake wheels, shock absorbers, hydraulic cylinders and retraction of landing gear. Front strut leg has two wheels with brake lever suspension, steering and hydraulic cylinder. Cleaning and landing gear, wheels braking main pillars, release and cleaning flap, turn the wheels of the front legs carried out by two hydraulic systems.
The landing gear control system enables the crew to change the tire pressure on the ground and in air that allows the crew to operate the aircraft from both concrete airfields and unpaved and snow-covered first-category airfields. Chassis control system allows changing the tire pressure, making it possible to operate not only with concrete runways, but with the snow-covered ground or first class airfields. Operating pressure in pneumatics chassis is 5 kgf / m.
A power-assisted servo-tab control system was developed for the An-22 aircraft. The system ensures high-degree flight safety and enables the crew to change over to manual control when the power-assisted control system fails. The dual control airplane includes fuselage wiring rope in the wing and tail - rigid rods of duralumin. The system control rudders and ailerons included bicameral irreversible hydraulic boosters, automatic boot electromechanism trimmer effect and steering gears of the automatic control system SAU-1T. High degree of safety achieved flight manual over servorulevoe management failure of the booster system. By plane provided auxiliary locking the rudders, ailerons, flaps and wheels turning mechanism of the front leg.
The powerplant consists of four turboprop engines NK-12mA (4h15000 hp) ND Kuznetsov design with coaxial propellers with four-AB-90 (diameter 6.2 m, the front screw is rotated to the right, back - left) and turbostarter TC-12mA. To increase the thrust to 14,500 kgf engines fitted with advanced gear and screws with an efficiency exceeding 90%. Screws have been developed under the leadership of KI Zhdanov. They are equipped with gidromehanizmami angle adjustment of the blades in flight and electrohydraulic system feathering working in both automatic and manual modes.
Soviet long-range turboprops included the Tupolev TU-95 "Bear" (which weighed 340,000 pounds, had a maximum range of 7,800 miles, a propeller diameter of 18.4 feet, and operated at a .75 mach cruise speed) and the Antonov AN-22 "Cock" (which weighed 550,000 pounds, had a maximum range of 6,800 miles, a propeller diameter of 20.3 feet, and operated at a .69 mach cruise speed). Ungrounded gearboxes were successfully used on two Russian applications: the Tupolev TU-95 "Bear" and the Antonov AN-22 "Cock." This experience provided evidence to confirm the results of analytical studies regarding the safety of the ungrounded gearbox.
The fuel is placed in the 14 center tanks, 10 wing tanks, compartments and six tanks in soft chassis fairings. Tanks are divided into four groups, each of which feeds your engine. Fuel tank capacity - 127 600 liters. Oil system of each engine with a tank capacity of 198 liters; inert gas system; fire-fighting equipment, the auxiliary gas turbine unit (2 TA-6AI). Engine NK-12mA is listed in the Guinness Book as the most powerful turboprop engine in the world.
Aircraft equipment instrumentation includes flight and navigation instruments and control of the power plant; radio communication - four different radio bands, STC-8, ARC-11, RV-4 radar altimeter; electrical equipment - sources and consumers of AC and DC; high-rise - the air conditioning system in a pressurized cockpit; icing system - thermal and electrothermal; Airborne transport and health; household equipment. The aircraft was mounted sighting and navigation system "Flight 1" radar "Initiative-4-100." In 1974 it incorporated the more advanced radar "Dome-22."
The airborne equipment is intended to execute airdropping/cargo-airlifting missions in VFR and IFR weather conditions and comprises a flight-and-navigation, aiming, radio communications and airdropping/cargo-handling equipment. The flight-and-navigation equipment comprises an integrated flight control and aiming-navigation system, automatic radio compass, radio altimeter, UHF radio compass, optical direction finder. The radio communications equipment comprises a HF radio set, UHF/VFR radio set, intercom system, survival radio set, voice warning system and tape recorder.
The An-22 is equipped with a cargo ramp that can be set at various levels (from the ground to a loading trestle or truck body), four telphers with a cargo-lifting capacity of 2.5 tons each that facilitate and speed up loading/unloading processes, regardless of the availability of airfield cargo-handling facilities.
Complex on-board handling equipment includes a ladder-ramp, which is also the bottom flap cargo hatch (it can be fixed in a predetermined position, in particular, at the level of a lorry or other vehicle), roller conveyors, two (4) monorail electric hoist lifting capacity of up to 2500 kg, capable of lifting off the ground and move the fuselage rolling loads. This speeds up and facilitates the loading and unloading process, regardless of the presence of terminal facilities. AN-22 is equipped with a means of ensuring parachute landing cargo and military equipment.
The "Antaeus" is capable of carrying 290 soldiers, 206 wounded, 151 paratroopers, Medium Tank (T-55, T-62), up to four BMD or BMP, and virtually all types of aircraft and helicopters frontline aviation. Able to parachute parachute (by breaking) arms and equipment weighing up to 22 tons able to carry external load under the wing.
The airdropping/cargo-handling equipment is intended to load, unload and airdrop paratroopers, combat materiel and cargoes, arrange and tie down them for airlift and comprises a cargo winch, electric telpher, rollgang equipment, tie-down chains, cables, rigging and auxiliary equipment, side-mounted stationary seats, detachable seats, ambulance straps, posts and medical equipment to cater to the wounded.
The aircraft can carry 85-100% nomenclature of armament and combat materiel of different fighting service organic subunits. In terms of transportation capabilities, the An-22 outperforms the IL-76M military transport aircraft 1.4 times.
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