R-77 / AA-12 ADDER
The most recent Russian R-77 medium-range missiles (AA-12 "AMRAAMSKI") is similar to and in some respects equal to the American AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles. The R-77 missile has an active radar finder and a maximim range of 90-100 kilometers (50 km more than AMRAAM) and flies at four times the speed of sound.
The AA-12 has rectangular narrow span wings and a distinctive set of four rectangular control surfaces at the rear. similar to the configuration used on the terminal control fins of the SS-21 'Scarab' and SS-23 'Spider' ballistic missiles. These unique control surfaces feature reduced flow separation at high angles of attack, producing greater aerodynamic moment force than conventional control surfaces. The missile's guidance is inertial with mid-course updates from the launch aircraft, followed by a terminal active radar phase from an acquisition range of about 20 kilometers.
The Rocket was created mainly to provide the possibility to use practically from any aircraft equipped with means of measuring the target coordinates (radar or optical), and the semi-active guidance enabled, if there are appropriate capabilities of the radar, to deploy several missiles on several targets. The R-77 missiles (the export name RVV-AE) belong to the fourth-generation air-to-air missiles. The missile is designed to destroy at all angles day and night, in different weather conditions, against the background of land and sea, under the influence of active radar jamming the following objectives: highly maneuverable aircraft with an overload of up to 12 units, strategic bombers, helicopters and including hover mode, missiles for various purposes (ground-to-air and air-to-air).
Dimensions and mass of the missile, its design (small-extension wings and folding grilles) provide: the possibility of using light carrier aircraft; large ammunition carriage on medium and large aircraft carriers; and the possibility of conformal or internal placement. The R-77 is used in the armament system of MiG-29 and Su-27 fighters of all modifications.
The R-77 missile (RVV-AE) is made in the normal aerodynamic scheme (the rudders are located behind the wings), with the X-shaped and symmetrical arrangement of the wings and rudders. It consists of eight compartments connected by means of wedge clamp packages. It uses non-removable wings of ultra-small elongation and folded grating wheels, which can be in two positions - folded (during transportation and storage) or uncovered (when suspended under a carrier aircraft). Each steering wheel operates autonomously (kinematically not connected with other steering wheels) from a separate drive motor. The R-77 has a single-mode rocket engine with solid fuel.
The source of autonomous power supply, including the steering drive, is thermal electric batteries of direct current. The rocket implemented the principle of "fire-and-forget" with multi-channel firing targets. The missile is equipped with a combined guidance system including: command-inertial guidance at the initial portion of the trajectory (up to 80% of the trajectory); Radar active homing on the final section of the trajectory. The transition from one mode to the second is carried out by the signal of the on-board computer, which determines the distance to capture the target. After the capture the target is illuminated by the emitter, and the missile is actively homing the target to a pre-established point of contact in accordance with the method of modified proportional navigation.
In certain conditions (starting on a low-flying target, attacking the target from behind, starting when interfering with the range-finding channel of the carrier airborne radar), guidance is carried out on special trajectories providing improved guidance accuracy and favorable operating conditions for a non-contact fuze in the presence of natural and artificial interference. From the moment the missile is launched, the autopilot with rudders provides stabilization of the missile relative to the longitudinal and transverse axes. To ensure the security of the carrier aircraft for the separation of the missile, the preliminary deflection of the rudders removes it on a special trajectory.
With a direct hit on the target or when flying close to it, one of the fusing devices is triggered - a contact device or a non-contact active laser fuse. On their commands, the safety-actuating mechanism undermines the core warhead (CU), which hits the target. The missile guidance system ensures a high probability entry into a circle with a radius of 7 meters, corresponding to the area of ??defeat of the warhead. The missile can be directed to the source of interference and in the passive mode of the guidance. The missile control system uses the newest methods of processing information about the target, which makes it possible to reconfigure the parameters of the guidance system during the flight of the missile and better adapt to the changing conditions of combat use and the effect of natural and artificial interference.
On the rocket, grating aerodynamic rudders are used, which were first used in world practice for air-to-air missiles that ensure continuous flow, maintain their efficiency up to attack angles of the order of 40 degrees. The design of the rudders allows them to be folded and automatically opened after start-up. The launch of the missile can be carried out both from rail and catapult launching devices.
The GOS includes a monopulse direction finder and a computer. To improve noise immunity and to ensure high accuracy of guidance, space-time signal processing, Kalman filtering, continuous solution of kinematic equations with the ability to maintain the guidance process during temporary disruptions of auto-tracking of the target are realized. The high performance of the ARGS is achieved through the use of: a slit antenna; a single-pulse receiver; a digital panoramic detector; High-quality two-channel gyrostabilizer with indicator drive.
The computer, which organizes the setting of the detector thresholds and the compensation of the zeros of the analog elements of the tracking loops, which forms the target designation in frequency and angle before the capture, the detection logic, and in conjunction with the ISU, the process of tracking the target signal in frequency and angle. As the developer claims in his promotional materials, 9B-1348E, installed on the export version of the missile, is intended for installation on air-to-air missiles. It provides: search, capture and tracking of moving targets on the preliminary target designation of the radar of carrier aircraft; the measurement of angular coordinates, angular velocities of targets and the speed of approach of the missile-target; reception and decoding of signals of radio correction; generation and transmission of digital signals for the missile control systems.
9B1348 refers to the type of homing systems based on inertial control with radio-correction at the initial and average flight phase and with active radar homing on the final stage of the missile's flight. The elements of 9B1348 include: the equipment of the active channel and the receiving channel of the encoded radio correction.
Operating modes of 9B-1348E are: active mode, fully autonomous (active) in the initial parameters of target designation without radar support for other radars in flight ("let-forget"), using only preliminary target designation, without radar support in flight; the inertial guidance mode with radio correction from the radar stations of the carrier aircraft and active guidance on the final phase of the flight.
The launch of R-77 missiles (RVV-AE) is provided from the AAP-170 (AAP-170E) railroads and the catapult AKU-170 (AKU-170E). R-77 missiles (RVV-AE) are suspended on AKU-170 aviation catapult launch devices (AKU-170E), placed under the wing of the carrier aircraft or under its fuselage (under the nacelles). The AKU-170E aviation catapult catapult device: 1 - front hydraulic pusher, 2 - suspension components to the carrier aircraft, 3 - power casing, 4 - rocket, 5 - rear hydraulic pusher.
ACU-170E refers to the starting devices of the piston type. It consists of a power casing that has suspension assemblies to the carrier aircraft. Inside the hull there are front and rear hydraulic pushers for catapulting the rocket, powered by a pyrotechnic drive (via the synchronization mechanism) when using the EPK-28T-2 pyro cartridge power.
The RVV-AE missile makes it possible to shoot enemy missiles launched on the aircraft. There are no sectors that can not be fired for the missile. High energy, a complete guidance system and an effective control system allow the missile to turn after launch and hit the target in the rear hemisphere of the carrier. The RVV-AE missile does not impose restrictions on the overload of the carrier at the time of launch.
The RVV-AE medium-range air-to-air guided missile is designed to engage air targets, such as fighters, bombers, attack aircraft, helicopters, military transports, and cruise missiles, at all aspects against ground and water surface, by day and night, in conditions of enemy electronic countermeasures, including a multichannel "fire-and-forget" mode. The missile is guided with an inertial/radio-corrected navigation system in the initial flight phase, and an active radar homing head in the terminal phase. It is powered with a one-mode solid-fuel rocket engine.
The warhead is of a multi-shaped charge rod type. It is fitted with a laser proximity target sensor. The missile's design with folding lattice control planes (electrically driven) and low-aspect wing make it small-sized enough for accomodation inside carrier's fuselage. The missiles make part of weapon systems of MiG/Su-type and other aircraft.
The missile is suspended under the aircraft on the AKU-170E launch unit providing for in-flight power supply, combat launch and emergency jettison. The missile can also be adapted for employment from foreign-made carriers in accordance with the technology developed by the missile designer. The RVV-AE missile can also be launched from land-based anti-air weapon systems making part of air defence missile/artillery units, including those armed with anti-aircraft guns. The RVV-AE missile, intended for combat employment from land-based launchers, is stored in a transport-launch container.
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