K-5 (RS-1U / RS-2)
In the history of military equipment, there are many examples of how weapons that were obviously imperfect were taken, possessing, along with many obvious shortcomings, the only merit that determined their fate - a fundamental novelty that allowed them to cope with tasks that could not be solved by other, more developed means. The first adopted by the Soviet fighter aviation system of guided missile weapons left much to be desired. Despite obvious flaws, it was launched into mass mass production at five plants and, in modernized versions, was in service until the eighties. As a result, by the time development of more advanced models was completed in our country, a streamlined cooperation of enterprises producing guided missiles had formed, and fighter aircraft had accumulated rich experience in the operation and use of missile weapons. In 1955 the Kaliningrad (Moscow Oblast) Series Production Plant, which was producing gun turrets for M-4 bomber aircraft and similar equipment, began series production of the first K-5 and K-8 guided air-to-air missiles.
The R-55 (K-55, Object 67), a modification of the K-5 missile, was series-produced throughout the 1967-77 period and quite widely used. By then the Almaz team had given up work air-to-air missiles, and the development of the K-55 missile was assigned to the engineering office at the Kaliningrad (Moscow Oblast) Series Production Plant. This plant was producing aircraft weapons (artillery turrets for M-4 bomber aircraft, sights, etc.), then in 1955 began series production of the first K-5 and K-8 guided air-to-air missiles. Developing the K-55 missile was the first task ever assigned to this team alone (and the only one concerning air-to-air missiles in the history of this team). Currently this engineering office in Kaliningrad, under the name Zvezda, is the leading Russian creator of strategic guided air-to-ground missiles.
The development of air-to-air guided weapons began in 1951, KB-1 (3 GU under the Council of Ministers) on an initiative basis. According to the decree 1587-590 of 04/01/52, the work receives official status. Jet guided weapons were created for fighters of the MiG-15/17 type, equipped with 4 of these systems, which made the defeat of the chosen air target practically guaranteed.
The main design work was carried out by KB-1 32 department. The head of work is D. Tomashevich. The project under development was called the “CMM product”. Work on the preparation of three MiG-17P aircraft for arming with new guided weapons was carried out in mid-1952 at the Gorky OKB-155. After the conversion, the aircraft received the name SP-6. Until the end of 1952, two more aircraft were added to them, converted at the Novosibirsk plant number 153.
The first tests of guided missiles begin in 1953. Prototypes of missiles called B-89 pass ground tests (throw). By the end of the summer of 1953, the cycle of throw and static tests was simultaneously ending. The small production of prototypes for the flight test cycle begins. Observation IL-28 is prepared for tracking the tests and the adjustment.
On 10/08/1953 the prototype B-89 / B-140 "Product ??" was launched from the aircraft SP-6 (MiG-17P) and made a fairly smooth flight. Flight tests began at the Astrakhan range Vladimirovka. The first stage included five launches conducted over two weeks. Further, the development of "Product Sh?" was transferred to OKB-2. Some experts switched to work under the direction of general designer P. Grushin. This did not affect the pace of work and in 1954 flight tests of prototypes continue. During 1954, according to the results of launches, work is carried out to eliminate deficiencies and update the propulsion system. By this time, 30 launches of the B-140 were made.
In August 1954, URS launches on aerial targets began. At first, “product 201” was used as a target, which was specially built as an unmanned target for these tests. However, due to the small EPR of the target, its capture occurred at a reduced design range, and the rocket launch itself occurred at a distance of less than one kilometer. The following launches, which began in 1955, were carried out on the accuracy of a radio fuse.
The main "combat" tests begin in the spring of 1955. 03/08/1955 recorded the first successful missile missile target aircraft (Tu-4). In 1956, after all tests, including state ones, more than 70 missile launches were carried out. Gorky Aircraft Plant No. 21 specifically for the development of new weapons produced a small batch of SP-15 interceptor aircraft (MiG-17PFU) in the amount of 40 aircraft. In 1956, missile military tests were conducted on these aircraft, after which they, under the name RS-1U, were put into service.
The S-1-U weapon system begins to be delivered for air defense aviation . In addition to the MiG-17PFU aircraft, the system is installed on board the Yak-25K interceptor aircraft. Unlike the Mig-17PFU, four launchers with missiles were installed on board the Yak-25K. Initially, the Moscow Region Plant No. 455 was engaged in missile production. Later, four more RS-1U production plants joined it. The APU-3 launcher was installed under the wing of an interceptor. For mounting the rocket, it had 369-? locks-holders. To fix the turbo-generator cable in the bow, a long rod is made. APU-3 were produced at the Kiev factory number 485.
The S-1U weapon system received a guidance and control system based on the RP-1U Izumrud-2 radar sight. It was developed by NII-177. It is a development of the Emerald radar station adopted for use in 1952 for the MiG-15/17. The radar has two antenna units - a parabolic antenna unit is made in the middle of the air intake to monitor the target, a parabolic antenna block is made above the air intake to detect the target and consists of two antennas directed in opposite directions. Radio control was carried out through 2 separate channels. On-board radio control equipment provided signal processing and data output for rocket movement in two planes. Data also came on a three-channel autopilot. He controlled and stabilized the flight of the rocket.
Guidance missiles occurred on the beam of the airborne radar. The pilot was required to hold the radar target to keep it at the central point of the radar indicator, after which the radio sight was transferred to automatic tracking mode. When reaching the firing range, the pilot launched a rocket or missiles. After the launch of the missiles, the pilot continued to hold the target on the radar indicator. At the same time, the onboard missile guidance equipment received data from the Emerald-2 radio sight, which operated on a constant conical scan. If the missile went astray, then the signal from the radar changed by the amount of deviation, thereby returning the missile to an equal-signal zone. If the missile did not hit the target for some reason, then after a certain time, set by the timer, self-destruction occurred.
The RS-1U rocket was created according to the canard aerodynamic scheme with a cruciform arrangement of the wing and rudders. The wing has a shape close to triangular. To stabilize the flight and control the movement "along the beam", the wing is provided with ailerons. This design and wing shape were developed at TsAGI by a group of P. Krasilshchikov. The RS-1U case made of magnesium and aluminum alloys is divided into five compartments. The connection of the compartments is a threaded screw.
The solid rocket engine is mounted in the middle of the rocket. Additionally, this arrangement provided constant alignment as the fuel burns out. Fragmentation warhead. The non-contact radar fuse received a ring antenna. The AR-10 is powered by an air flow turbogenerator. At the start of the rocket, the cable tore off the protection from the holes of the turbogenerator, and due to the oncoming air flow, power was supplied to the radio fuse. In the Soviet Union, the rocket was produced in a fairly large volume. It was delivered to friendly countries, in which it was also in service. Out of production in 1970.
In KB-1, work was carried out to modernize the complex. A new airborne radar station TsD-30 is being created. The complex, called K-51, plans to equip the developed Su-9 interceptor aircraft. Under this complex, OKB-2 is remodeling the serial RS-1U. 10.10.1960, the Council of Ministers issued Resolution No. 1108-460 - the new aviation complex is called Su-9-51 (K-5MS), the modified missile is called RS-2US. In parallel, the development of a new launcher was in progress. In 1956, the plant was entrusted with the production of new APU-4 for Yak-25K, MiG-17 carrier aircraft. They have already been made universal - in addition to the K-5 weapon systems and modifications, it is possible to suspend NAR-class missiles on it. Subsequently, APU-19/20 launchers were developed, which were installed on the prototypes of the Su-9, serial Su-9, MiG-19/21.
In 1956, the main carrier of the RS-1U - MiG-17 was no longer the last word of fighter aircraft. After the release of a small series of MiG-17P-FU, the aviation industry in the same year began to produce the first seven supersonic missile carriers MiG-19PM (SM-7A, SM-7 / 2M, "type 60") at the Gorky plant.
Work on equipping the MiG-19 with rockets began back in 1954. In order for such missiles to become a worthy weapon for the MiG-19, it was necessary to increase the height of their use to at least 15 kilometers, and the firing range - to 4-5 km. Moreover, this should have been done without making significant changes to its equipment, while retaining the basic structural elements. And there were not so many reserves at "ShM", since the adopted method of aiming at a target along the radar beam carried a number of fundamental limitations. But if the "ShM" could still be considered as the first experience of introducing guided missiles into the armament of fighter-interceptors, then its further development should have become a full-fledged and effective weapon.
During the 1966-68 period the two teams working on air-to-air missiles were renamed -- Bisnovat's OKB-4 team was renamed Molniya and Andrey Lyapin's (who replaced Ivan Toropov in 1961) team was designated Vympel. During later part of the 1960s the Vympel team began working on modifications to the R-55 which resulted in the R-55M missile, with a cooled homing head, a radio rather than optical closing-in igniter, and a more potent warhead.
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