Project 956 Sarych
Guided Missile Destroyer
According to the latest classification adopted in the Navy of the USSR in 1977, the ship became known as the destroyer of the 1st rank. His final assignment was defined as the launching of rocket attacks on surface ships of the enemy, the provision of fire support to the landing party, as well as air defense and anti-submarine defense of ships and transports.
Domestic and foreign researchers of fleet history agree that most warships created in the Northern PKB have a characteristic “spectacular” appearance. Project 956 is no exception. In the descriptions of the appearance of the destroyers of this project often use the definition of "aggressive", "sinister", "expressive". And this can hardly be considered an accident. Warships are not only a tool for fighting at sea, they are also a serious geopolitical tool, a symbol of the power of the country whose flag they represent. The military fleet is a means of political persuasion and influence, a demonstration of the achievements of the country's scientific and technological development and the power of its economy.
Naturally, the "expressiveness" of the appearance of the ship should not reduce its combat effectiveness. However, the ships of Project 956 are fine with this: most experts believe that the destroyers of this series are an example of the balanced combination of high functional qualities and aesthetic perfection.
The destroyers "Sarych" have a long-deck design with a sheer nose. The hull form reliably ensures that the deck is not overcrowded and the optimum angles of shelling of the ship’s artillery are. The hull contours provide navigation under agitation to 6-7 points. The coefficient of elongation of the deck is 8.7. The ship hull is made with regard to the requirements of reducing the radar visibility of the vessel, although it should be noted that the destroyers "Sarych" do not belong to the class of "stealth-ships."
In the forward part of the hull, in the underrun bulb, is the antenna of the SJSC “Platina” sonar. The side sail area of the destroyer is 1700 m2. Decks are placed parallel to the waterline, which simplified the installation of equipment during construction. Fifteen main bulkheads divide the hull into sixteen watertight compartments. Project 956 ships have six decks: the second, third and upper decks, the forecastle deck, two platforms, one of which smoothly passes into the floor of the second floor. The main structures of the hull, reinforcements and foundations are made of low-alloy steel. From the stern to the engine room there are two longitudinal bulkheads, they provide additional rigidity of the stern of the ship. Destroyer pads have a significant collapse, which increases the stability of the ship.
The destroyers of Project 956 have high seaworthy qualities (seaworthiness is unlimited). Sailors can use on-board armament systems at a sea state of up to five points. Ships are equipped with pitching dampers. With a sea of six points, destroyers are able to develop a course of up to 24 knots.
The superstructures of the Project 956 ships are made of an aluminum-magnesium alloy, they are connected to the hull and decks by rivets. The superstructure of the ship is divided into two large blocks: fore and aft. The bow end ends with a foremast, and the stern consists of a block with a chimney and a sliding hangar on which the mainmast is located.
The standard displacement of the destroyer is 6500 tons, the total displacement is 7940 tons, with an overload of 8480 tons. The power plant of project 956 destroyers consists of two boiler-turbine units GTZA-674 (total capacity of 100 thousand liters. Pp.), Located in two engine rooms - fore and aft. It should be noted that the “Sarych” is the only third-generation warships in the world with a steam-turbine power plant. The turbo-gear unit has a control system that is able to regulate the rotational speed in different operating modes of the plant. In each of the engine rooms there are two boilers and a steam turbine. On all destroyers, starting with the seventh (“Resistant”), more reliable boilers KVG-3 were installed.
With the visit to the Northern PKB in early 1973, S.G. Gorshkov ordered a boiler-turbine installation. This was a choice between the South Turbine Plant (YuTZ) in Nikolaev, officially called NPO "Zarya" - on the one hand, and the main steam generator turbines for surface ships - the Kirov plant in Leningrad. Its substantiations boiled down to the following: YuTZ — the main supplier of GTUs for the Soviet Navy — cannot provide the turbines with the entire program for building new ships, and losing the steam turbine shop at the Kirov plant is unwise. In addition, in case of difficulties with diesel fuel in the fleet there will always be ships using fuel oil or even crude oil as fuel.
Steam turbines could give increased power, compared to the existing gas turbine plants, although the increase in weight. In the case of the version with gas turbines would have to install at least 4 GTU per 90,000 hp, and the released volumes would be “eaten” by larger chimneys. In principle, no particular problems should have arisen - the improvement of the characteristics of the boiler plant based on the compressor pressurization of air into the boiler furnace with heat recovery in the turbocharger was worked out at project 1134A.
The boilers are called the weakest point of the ships of this series. They are very demanding of the water supplied, and often failed. The water treatment system installed on the project ships does not adequately ensure the quality of the water, which led to rapid deterioration of the boilers. The water treatment system of destroyers of Project 956 had a fatal role for the duration of service of all ships of the project. New boilers had become extremely demanding on the quality of feed water, in particular on oxygen content. Unlike nuclear submarines, the feedwater system remained "open" (communicated with atmospheric air), so the water treatment provided by the designers did not provide the required water quality, which led to a rapid failure of the boilers. Destroyers with non-working boilers had to be sent for repair. The experience of using high-pressure boilers showed that the domestic fleet (both Soviet and Russian) was not yet ready to switch to such power plants.
The flue gas energy is used to heat the air in economizer (preheater) and to drive the compressor from the turbocharger unit (a small gas turbine), forcing air into the furnaces. Excess or shortage of air for the boilers is regulated by an additional turbine or is cut off through the valve. Feed water is supplied through an economizer, from where water is supplied through a feed tube to outlet pipes located behind the screen that connect the water and steam collectors. Steam formation occurs in the screen row and convective tube bundle. Next, steam enters the superheater, and then into the turbine. The condensate-feed system includes ion exchange filters for cleaning and softening water.
In addition to the main engines, the ship’s power plant also includes an additional emergency boiler, which can produce 14,000 kg of steam. The destroyer has two shafts and two small-joint propellers. The maximum speed of the ships of this project is 33.4 knots. The fuel reserve is 1.7 thousand tons, which provides a navigation distance of 3,900 nautical miles.
The steering unit consists of a hydraulic machine and a semi-balanced steering wheel. The destroyers of Project 956 are equipped with two steam generators (total power 2500 kW) and two diesel generators (600 kW each) that provide ships with electric power.
Under normal conditions, the crew size is 296 people, including 25 officers and 48 midshipmen. In wartime, the ship crew increased to 358 people. The destroyers “Sarych” created comfortable conditions for the crew to live in: single and double cabins were equipped for officers, and double and four-seater cabins for midshipmen. The sailors are placed in sixteen cabin for 10-25 people each. One person has more than three square meters of living space.
There is a separate mess room for officers on board, another one designed for midshipmen and several canteens where sailors take food. On board there are several showers and a sauna. The crew has a library, a cinema, cable TV, there is even a national pool. All living and working spaces of the destroyer are equipped with air conditioning, it provides comfortable conditions for the crew in the temperature range from -25 ° C to +34 ° C. It should be noted that the destroyers of Project 956 compare favorably with other ships of Soviet and Russian construction in terms of living conditions for the crew. The autonomy of the destroyers "Sarych" on stocks of provisions is 30 days.
The Sarych anti-aircraft missile armament consists of the Uragan air defense missile system M-22, which is a naval modification of the Buk complex. On ships of later construction, the Uragan-Tornado air defense system was installed. Two launchers of anti-aircraft missiles are on the bow (super-low forecastle superstructure) and at the stern (behind the landing ground) of the ship. The mass of each air defense system is 96 tons, the total ammunition - 48 guided missiles, which are located in the cellars on special drums.
The characteristics of the “Uragan” air defense system allow simultaneously firing at 4-6 targets at altitudes from 10 to 1 thousand meters and at a distance of up to 25 km. The capabilities of the Uragan-Tornado air defense system are even more impressive: the maximum damage range is 70 km. The rate of fire - one rocket launch in 6-12 seconds. The probability of hitting an aircraft with a volley of two missiles is between 0.81–0.96, and a cruise missile is 0.43–0.86.
The destroyers of the “Sarych” project have powerful artillery armament, consisting of two twin AK-130 artillery systems (130 mm caliber) and rapid-fire anti-aircraft artillery, which is the last line of air defense of ships. Also part of the artillery armament of destroyers includes a multi-channel fire control system MR-184, consisting of a radar, a laser rangefinder, a TV and a ballistic computer.
Each gun mount has a mechanized supply of ammunition, which allows it to fire at a rate of 30 to 90 rounds per minute over a distance of over 24 km. The ammunition for each barrel is 500 rounds, of which 180 are always ready for use. Automation of the processes of loading and supplying ammunition allows firing until the ammunition is completely exhausted. The weight of one gun mount is 98 tons.
Rapid fire anti-aircraft artillery destroyers Project 956 consists of two batteries of automatic systems AK-630M. The batteries are located on each side of the ship and are designed to destroy cruise missiles at low altitudes. The composition of each of the batteries includes two six-barrel gun mounts with a rotating block of barrels and SU “Vympel”. The firing range of the AK-630M is 4 km, the rate of fire is 4 thousand rounds per minute.
The main anti-ship weapon of the destroyer “Sarych” is the “Moskit” anti-ship missile. On the "Restless" and all subsequent ships of the project installed a modernized complex "Mosquito-M". The destroyers of Project 956 have two fixed launchers, each of which contains four anti-ship missiles "Mosquito". The range of destruction of the target in "Moskit" is 140 km, and in "Moskit-M" - 170 km. The missiles have a combat weight of 300 kg and develop in flight speed to M = 2.5-3. The ship can release all eight missiles in just 30 seconds.
On the upper deck of the destroyers are two twin-tube torpedo tubes of 533 mm caliber. The mine weapons are represented by two RBU-1000 jet mortars, which can fire at a distance of 1 thousand meters. Bombers are located in the stern of the ship. Their main task - the destruction of enemy submarines at shallow depths in the immediate vicinity of the ship. The warhead of each of the jet bombs - 98 kg. Project 956 destroyers can place barrage mines (up to 22 minutes are allowed on board).
The Project 956 destroyers do not have a permanent helicopter hangar, but a temporary, movable one is provided for. It can be based Ka-27 helicopter . The helipad is located almost in the center of the ship, so it is less influenced by pitching. The helicopter can be used for anti-submarine warfare, it can also conduct reconnaissance and give target designation for anti-ship missiles.
Several types of radar stations have been installed on the Sarych destroyers: Fregat, Fregat-M and Fregat-MA. For over-the-horizon detection of enemy objects and target designation, the “Most” system is used, it can search at distances of up to 200 km. The target designation for the anti-ship missile system is issued by the Mineral system, it has both active and passive radar channels. The ship can receive target designation from aircraft or helicopters.
On the destroyers of Project 9566 there is no on-board information and control system, its functions are performed by the Sapfir-U situation tablet. Project 956 ships are equipped with a complex of electronic warfare equipment, which includes electronic reconnaissance and jamming systems, as well as passive and active countermeasures.
The destroyers of Project 956 have a well thought-out survivability system. Around the potentially dangerous premises of the ship (cellar, engine room) fire departments were created by reinforcing the hull with steel structures. There is a fire line with several pumps, surround fire extinguishing systems, foam extinguishing systems, irrigation systems for overhangs and bulkheads. Also on the ship have a system of rapid irrigation and flooding cellars. To eliminate the water threat on the ships of the project there are: systems for drainage, drainage and balancing of tanks. There is a system of external washing in case of contamination of external surfaces. The armor protection (anti-splinter) provided only artillery installations and PU Moskit PKR.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|